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image representation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract A phase diagram is a graphical representation of the phase equilibria of materials in terms of temperature, composition, and pressure. This article provides an overview on the background of phase diagram calculation software. It presents an algorithm to calculate binary stable phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... measurement and representation of textures as well as prediction of texture evolution in single-phase materials and two-phase aggregates. self-consistent modeling continuum micromechanics single-crystal deformation texture evolution modeling single-phase materials two-phase aggregates When...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the gap between a pixel representation of a characteristic property and an engineering characterization. The most widely employed methods for image interpretation belong to domain shape matching and statistical pattern matching. A machine vision system will rarely be used without some form...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... spatially specific structure and density information also opens up the opportunity to obtain 3-D data representations ( Fig. 12 ) of physical components for CAD documentation and computer-aided engineering analysis. Fig. 11 Cross-sectional computed tomography image through a turbine blade with wall...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... applications. It discusses the mathematics behind classical beamforming, full matrix capture, and total focusing methods of imaging. The article shows how ultrasonic array data can be simulated by direct numerical methods (most commonly using finite-element methods), analytical methods, or hybrid methods. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Radiography is the process or technique of producing images of a solid material on a paper/photographic film or on a fluorescent screen by means of radiation particles or electromagnetic waves of short wavelength. This article reviews the general characteristics and safety principles...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... radiation in radiographic inspection, including X-rays and gamma rays. It deals with the characteristics that differentiate neutron radiography from X-ray or gamma-ray radiography. The geometric principles of shadow formation, image conversion, variation of attenuation with test-piece thickness, and many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... time-of-flight SIMS are covered. Instrumental features required for secondary ion imaging are presented and the differences between quadrupole and high-resolution magnetic mass filters are described. The article also reviews the optimum method for analysis of nonmetallic samples and high detection...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., either manually or by the use of image analyzers. Preparation of metallographic specimens generally requires five major operations: sectioning, mounting, grinding, chemical polishing, and etching. The article provides information on the principles of technique selection in mechanical polishing, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... determined. The mathematical relationships developed in quantitative stereology are described in the article “Quantitative Image Analysis” and “Quantitative Characterization and Representation of Global Microstructural Geometry” in Volume 9 of ASM Handbook . Knowing the roughness parameters enables...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the SEM compared with other common microscopy and microanalysis techniques. The following sections cover the critical issues regarding sample preparation, the physical principles regarding electron beam-sample interaction, and the mechanisms for many types of image contrast. The article also presents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Figure 7 illustrates the capabilities of image-processing software. Fig. 7 A 2 × 2 μm vibrating-mode image of a biaxially oriented polypropylene polymer fiber. (a) Two-dimensional color-scale presentation. (b) Three-dimensional light-shaded representation. (c) Line profile showing vertical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... larger imaging arrays, and with the development of lower-cost uncooled IR detectors, it is becoming easier for researchers and practitioners outside of the experimental mechanics field to capitalize on this powerful technique and use it in a wider range of engineering applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the analytical features, coupling the x-ray detector to the display system of an SEM allows chemical “maps” to be obtained that can provide excellent visual representations of elemental and/or phase segregation. The need by industry for a quick and easy method to test chemical compositions for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... logical representation of a physical system or process. The use of modeling can be a very powerful tool for information pertaining to the reconstruction of an accident. Whether the modeling consists of simple mathematical modeling of a physical system or more complex computer modeling of a system or part...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... inspection techniques examine some metric or signal against a threshold level. The signal may be a simple voltage or indicator level or it may be a complex multidimensional image; however, the basic concept of flaw detection is that the signal exceeds a detection threshold. Quantification of this aspect of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and is available at http://shelx.uni-goettingen.de/ . Another complex software program with a rich history, SIR (Semi-Invariants Representation) ( Ref 19 ), was originally developed for crystal structure solutions of small, medium, and large structures by Prof. Carmelo Giacovazzo in the late...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... enhanced with PT, MT, IR, UV, laser reference lines, video, and magnifying lenses All Thermal/infrared (IR)—includes passive thermal inspections, flash thermography, and laser flying spot/line technology Surface temperatures are imaged by point sensors, IR cameras, or coatings that change appearance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... applications is presented. ion beam interaction focused ion beam imaging focused ion beam milling Focused ion beam (FIB) instruments can be thought of as the tools that can help humans to see, manipulate, and analyze matter at the smallest length scales. At the most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., fiber distribution, cracks, voids Good Good for inclusions, translaminar Good Poor; need for screening, etc. Modest for basic system; high for more flexible systems Thermography Delaminations, fiber concentrations, bonding defects, inclusions Good provided suitable heat source and images...