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image conversion

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...: use of lead screens; protection against backscatter and scatter from external objects; and use of masks, diaphragms, collimators, and filtration. The article concludes with a discussion on image conversion media, including recording media, lead screens, lead oxide screens, and fluorescent intensifying...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of radiation in radiographic inspection, including X-rays and gamma rays. It deals with the characteristics that differentiate neutron radiography from X-ray or gamma-ray radiography. The geometric principles of shadow formation, image conversion, variation of attenuation with test-piece thickness, and many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of image conversion techniques allow the viewing of radiographic images while the testpiece is being irradiated and moved with respect to the radiation source and the radiation detector. Real-time radiography is a technique in which the x-rays cause fluorescence of a sensor, and that image is visually...
Image
Published: 30 November 2018
Fig. 7 Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of a vinyl phosphonic acid conversion-coated aluminum alloy enhanced with a polymer modifier (acrylic acid). The initial thickness of the conversion coating, without the modifier, was reported to be the same thickness as the passive layer More
Image
Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 13 Micro x-ray diffraction (XRD) data from the backside of the imager substrate. Inset is the original two-dimensional (2-D) pattern. The X - Y plot is a result of integration of the 2-D pattern and conversion to a traditional one-dimensional XRD pattern. Reprinted with permission from More
Image
Published: 30 June 2023
Fig. 2 General procedures for developing a patient-specific medical device or implant. (a) Imaging to obtain patient scans. Reprinted from Ref 45 under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license. (b) Segmentation to isolate anatomy and (c) conversion to computer More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... on the image conversion medium depends mainly on the absorption characteristics of the testpiece. Ordinarily, only the umbral region of a radiograph is of interest because it is only in this region that internal features of the testpiece are revealed. When a section of the testpiece contains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., which introduced a real-time, image-based, noncontact approach to temperature measurement—a welcome alternative to point temperature sensors attached to the surface of the part, or temperature-sensitive paints or tapes that had been used previously. In TNDE, applied external excitation acts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... detection. This media conversion occurred much earlier in scanning instruments (STEM and SEM). Initially, photographic film was used to record images in STEM and SEM instruments, but this option is now completely obsolete. Digital recording devices used in modern TEM and STEM instruments are introduced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract Chromate conversion coatings (CCCs) are primarily used to improve adhesion of subsequently applied organic coatings or to impart corrosion resistance during atmospheric exposure. This article describes the factors that affect the formation of CCCs. It provides information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... discusses the most common hardness conversions and the applications of MHT. microindentation hardness testing specimen preparation Vickers hardness test Knoop hardness test microindentation hardness testing equipment repeatability reproducibility IN MICROINDENTATION HARDNESS TESTING (MHT...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of the vibrothermography process: vibration of the specimen by a transducer; conversion of vibrational energy into heat by a crack, delamination, and other contacting surfaces; conduction of the heat to an external surface; and infrared detection of the heat with a thermal camera. vibrothermography delaminations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the digitized image. Image sharpening is required because the conversion from an analog signal to a digitized signal does not produce sharp edges. Delineation, the most commonly used image enhancement function, converts digitized signals to a square-wave function, thus producing sharper images. Feature...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... the fracture is related to the components of the part. This should be followed by careful examination of the fracture by studying its image on the ground-glass back of the camera or through the viewfinder. The examination should begin with the use of direct lighting and should proceed by using various angles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... methods are discussed in the following sections. The related topic of sizing and imaging is considered in the article “Ultrasonic Imaging and Sizing” in this Volume. Pulse-Echo Methods In pulse-echo inspection, short bursts of ultrasonic energy (pulses) are introduced into a test piece at regular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract Three-dimensional microscopy can be used to reveal the shape, distribution, and connectivity of three-dimensional (3D) features that lie buried within an opaque material. This article discusses several experimental techniques that can be used to generate 3D images. These include serial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... is the distance that the radiation passes through the material. A defect such as a pore space would result in less x-ray absorption than the surrounding areas, creating a brighter region in the radiographic projection image. Conversely, an x-ray-dense inclusion would be visible as a darker spot in the x-ray image...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... fringe field. If, conversely, the application involves the strain analysis of an object subjected to a specific type of stress, the image can be analyzed to yield a highly quantitative point-by-point map of the resulting surface displacements. It permits comparison of the responses of an object to two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Computed tomography (CT) is an imaging technique that generates a three-dimensional (3-D) volumetric image of a test piece. This article illustrates the basic principles of CT and provides information on the types, applications, and capabilities of CT systems. A comparison...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to calculate the conversion or degree of cure from the ΔH res or from T g,res if the T g conversion relationship has been established. Rheological Methods In addition to the curing process, the flow of the uncured resin formulation is a key processing parameter. As such, rheological methods...