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image contrast

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Image
Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 5 Origin of direct (1), dynamical (2), and intermediate (3) image contrast for a dislocation. Source: Ref 8 More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 45 Image contrast (left) and corresponding black-and-white (b-w) detection thresholds (right) for automatic image analysis of dendrite arm size in hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon cast alloys. (a) Good contrast for automatic image analysis of dendrite outlined with α-Al + Si eutectic. 200 More
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 10 Effect of geometric unsharpness on image contrast. (a) Flaw size, d , is larger than the unsharpness, then full contrast occurs. (b) Flaw size, d , is smaller than the unsharpness, then contrast is reduced. More
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 16 Development of TEM image contrast due to differential diffraction. Grains that are poorly oriented for diffraction transmit a higher percentage of the beam and appear bright in the image; those ideally oriented for diffraction transmit a lower percentage of the beam and appear dark More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 23 Effect of geometric unsharpness on image contrast. (a) Flaw size, d , is larger than the unsharpness, then full contrast occurs. (b) Flaw size, d, is smaller than the unsharpness, then contrast is reduced. More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 17 (a) Offline contrast enhancement of the image in Fig. 14 (b) Note the empty bins in the resulting image histogram. More
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 8 Backscattered electron image showing atomic number contrast in as-cast Cu-Al-Mg alloy. Brightest areas represent phases containing the greatest concentration of high atomic number copper. Darker areas represent phases of progressively lower average atomic number. Courtesy of Joe Michael More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 27 Computed tomography image of low-contrast detectability test phantom More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 5 (a) Maximum feature-background contrast infrared image of a 0.038 m (0.125 ft) deep, 25 mm (1 in.) diameter flat-bottom hole in stainless steel. (b) Temperature profile along the red line bisecting the hole shows the actual diameter and full-width, half-maximum (FWHM) measurement. More
Image
Published: 15 June 2020
Fig. 49 Gallium ion contrast channeling image of air-atomized copper powder with high initial oxygen content (~1800 ppm) after hydrogen heat treatment (Ref 123) More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of the SEM compared with other common microscopy and microanalysis techniques. The following sections cover the critical issues regarding sample preparation, the physical principles regarding electron beam-sample interaction, and the mechanisms for many types of image contrast. The article also presents...
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 31 Scanning electron microscope with polarization analysis (SEMPA) images of a (100) surface of an iron-silicon crystal. (a) Secondary electron intensity image, with little contrast. (b) Image of the x-component of the magnetization, with white coloring for magnetization pointing More
Image
Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 11 Influence of Burgers vector orientation on the FIM contrast from dislocations. (a) Dislocations in tungsten. The Burgers vector in this material has a component normal to the surface, producing the spiral images shown. Courtesy of T.J. Godfrey, University of Oxford. (b) Origin of image More
Image
Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 26 Grain boundaries revealed by channeling contrast. Images taken in the δ phase at the left side of the sample of Fig. 23 . (a) Secondary electron detector. (b) Backscattered electron detector. Original magnification, 700× More
Image
Published: 15 June 2020
Fig. 47 Gallium ion contrast channeling images of nitrogen-gas-atomized copper powder cross sections (a) before hydrogen heat treatment (containing both surface and grain-boundary Cu 2 O) and (b) after hydrogen treatment. The hydrogen has removed surface oxides but has reacted with grain More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... contrast, resolution, and depth of field. As magnification increases, the aperture diaphragm is stopped down. Opening this aperture increases image resolution, but reduces contrast; closing the aperture increases contrast, but diminishes image resolution. The aperture diaphragm should not be used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... image is obtained by light refraction through a combination of objective lenses and eyepieces ( Fig. 1 , 2 ). The minimum feature resolution is approximately 0.2 μm. However, smaller features—as small as approximately 0.05 μm—can be detected by image contrast enhancement with polarized light...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... structures (microstructure) include the magneto-optical Kerr method, the Faraday method, the Bitter technique, scanning electron microscopy (magnetic contrast Types I and II), scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis, Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, and magnetic force microscopy...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... are accustomed to “processing” images with this type of contrast, and correctly interpret secondary electron images as topography or pictures of the sample's surface. These principles of secondary electron contrast are apparent in the SEM photograph or a dimpled fracture surface, shown in Fig. 6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... system. It discusses the contrasts mechanisms used for imaging and analyzing materials in the SEM. These include the topographic contrast, compositional contrast, and electron channeling pattern and orientation contrast. Special instrumentation and accessory equipment used at elevated pressures...