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image acquisition

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., and quality control applications. This article presents a variety of machine vision functions for different purposes and provides a comparison of machine and human vision capabilities in a table. It discusses the processes of a machine vision system: image acquisition, image preprocessing, image...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., so the gun may act as an unwanted source of IR radiation if it is in the field of view during image acquisition. Sources such as heat blankets, heating pads, or platens may be brought into direct contact with the sample to raise the sample temperature. The source is usually a nichrome wire array...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) approach enables essentially simultaneous examination of microstructural features through imaging from lower magnifications to atomic resolution and the acquisition of chemical and crystallographic information from small regions of the thin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article discusses the basic principles of and chemical effects in Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), covering various factors affecting the quantitative analyses of AES. The discussion covers instrumentation and sophisticated electronics typically used in AES for data acquisition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... dataset. Data acquisition is critical in creating virtual point clouds. Three-dimensional data cannot be compiled properly without enough data overlap between photographs or laser scans. Figure 4 shows the final image of one-tenth mile of rural roadway imaged by an sUAS and processed with photogrammetry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article reviews network models and their applications for the simulation of various physical phenomena related to grain-boundary migration. It discusses the steps involved in the implementation of two and three-dimensional network models, namely, acquisition and discretization of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... generation with complex geometries. It discusses the four-step procedures used in the CFD process for engineering design: geometry acquisition, grid generation and problem specification, flow solution, and post-processing and synthesis. The article also provides information on the engineering applications of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Computed tomography (CT) is an imaging technique that generates a three-dimensional (3-D) volumetric image of a test piece. This article illustrates the basic principles of CT and provides information on the types, applications, and capabilities of CT systems. A comparison of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... provides information on the dimension-measurement applications of ultrasonic inspection methods. ultrasonic imaging inspection area-amplitude blocks distance-amplitude blocks calibration defects WHEN ULTRASONIC NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) was first applied, it was a workmanship standard and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... significantly more expensive. Image analysis consists of six basic steps ( Ref 2 ): Image acquisition for microstructural analysis is accomplished with a microscope and a video camera. Image enhancement is required to correct for nonuniform illumination and to sharpen the digitized image. Image...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... every possible pair of transmitter and receiver elements—the so-called full matrix of data. Imaging and any other analysis then is performed on the full matrix of data entirely in postprocessing. There are several advantages to the FMC approach. First, the data-acquisition requirements become fixed, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... allows aperture priority control, shutter priority control, program control, and manual control. The camera is typically set to JPEG fine images for failure analysis investigations. If ultimate image quality is required, or extremely large prints are needed, RAW file image acquisition is recommended. The...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Metal transparency and interaction with X-rays have been recognized as obvious candidate principles from which methods for in situ monitoring of solidification processes could be developed. This article describes the use of X-ray imaging-based techniques to investigate interface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... attain low pressures in the 10 −8 Pa (7.5 × 10 −10 torr) range. Control of the modern microscope involves a computer-user interface that enables electron beam manipulation, image acquisition, sample positioning, detector selection, and vacuum operation. The user can define the probe based on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... time-of-flight SIMS are covered. Instrumental features required for secondary ion imaging are presented and the differences between quadrupole and high-resolution magnetic mass filters are described. The article also reviews the optimum method for analysis of nonmetallic samples and high detection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... inspections, A-scans are collected and used to create B-scan (side-view) images of the material volume inspected. Analysis is done on the acquisition unit or in postanalysis software, positioning cursors to measure the length and through-wall height of flaws. A TOFD setup is the probe arrangement as defined...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...). This permits the use of low levels of stress during inspection. Further, special analysis techniques can provide improved sensitivity of almost 1000 fold. It does not rely on data acquisition by either point-by-point determinations or scanning processes; instead, three-dimensional images of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... radiation in radiographic inspection, including X-rays and gamma rays. It deals with the characteristics that differentiate neutron radiography from X-ray or gamma-ray radiography. The geometric principles of shadow formation, image conversion, variation of attenuation with test-piece thickness, and many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... instruments, a separate EDS spectrum is obtained for each pixel in the image, so qualitative and quantitative data can be retrieved from the map without performing further analysis. The faster data acquisition of SDDs has greatly improved the efficiency of producing elemental maps, such that mapping is much...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... image. For conventional imaging, the gray level of each pixel is assigned an 8 or 16 bit value that is proportional to the number of secondary electrons produced while the beam is at the corresponding location. Usually, image acquisition can be configured to involve averaging of successive line scans or...