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illumination methods

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and, if needed, measuring the amount, size, and spacing of constituents, using the light optical microscope. The discussion covers the examination of microstructures using different illumination methods and includes a comparison between light optical images and scanning electron microscopy images...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... control. This article describes the sample preparation techniques of composite materials. These techniques include mounting, rough grinding, and polishing. The preparation techniques of ultrathin sections are also summarized. The article explains the illumination methods used by reflected light microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... cross section showing the differences in contrast methods. The composite morphology and microcracks appear significantly different using these epi-illumination modes. One transmitted-light method is shown for reference. (a) Bright-field illumination, 25× objective. (b) Dark-field illumination, 25...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of the effect of different methods of illumination on the appearance of a fracture surface. For this particular surface, ring illumination ( Fig. 11a ) is poorest and vertical illumination ( Fig. 11d ) provides the best overall detail, primarily because of the greater reflectivity of the fatigue zone. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Electrolytically etched. 250× Fig. 39 Inconel 718 (UNS N07718) heat treated 100 h at 870 °C (1600 °F) to produce needlelike orthorhombic Ni 3 Nb. (a) Bright-field illumination. (b) Differential interference-contrast illumination. Particles in relief in (b) are niobium carbides; particles flush...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and viewed with polarized light illumination. These micrographs show the effect of the cooling rate from the inside to the outside locations of the ingot. The outer surface shows a finer acicular structure due to the faster cooling rate. Original magnification: 50×. Fig. 2 Zircaloy 4 welded sheet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Fig. 1 Composite cross sections. (a) Sheet molding compound made from carbon-black-filled epoxy resin and chopped glass fiber. Bright-field illumination, 65 mm macrophotograph montage. (b) Quasi-isotropic unidirectional prepreg laminate. Slightly uncrossed polarized light, 5× objective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... techniques and their relationships to traditional stereological analysis ( Ref 1 ). Prior to the time when computers and image analysis software became accessible, feature counting methods were used (e.g., a grid is used to frame the object, or a line of known length is drawn on a photograph and the number...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... discontinuities. Visual inspection is the most widely used method for detecting and examining surface cracks. Visual inspection methods range from examination with the naked eye to the use of interference microscopes to measure the depth of scratches in the finish of finely polished and lapped surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... at 45 degrees to the plane view ( Fig. 9 ) ( Ref 2 ). This creates elliptical images of the fibers in which the angle of the fibers can be determined based on the aspect ratio of the fibers and simple geometry. This is an easy method to determine ply angles using bright-field illumination, but the fiber...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... discontinuities. Visual inspection is the most widely used method for detecting and examining surface cracks. Visual inspection methods range from examination with the naked eye to the use of interference microscopes to measure the depth of scratches in the finish of finely polished and lapped surfaces...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the methods and equipments involved in the preparation of specimens for examination by light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis for microindentation hardness testing, and for quantification of microstructural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... marks during preliminary visual inspection. Courtesy of A. Antonatos Fig. 8 Ground weld surface after visual inspection and prior to using a subsequent different nondestructive testing method. Courtesy of A. Antonatos Fig. 9 Microcracks in etched weldment cross section revealed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... that occurred in a carbon fiber composite after being subjected to a lab-induced lightning strike. Comparison of different contrast methods: bright-field illumination and epi-fluorescence, 390–440 nm excitation, 25× objective Fig. 13 Lightning strike damage in a carbon fiber composite laminate having...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Fig. 1 Glass fabric composite that has high void content. Void areas are due to residual solvent from the prepregging process. Bright-field illumination, 10× objective Fig. 2 Laminate made with unidirectional carbon fiber prepreg and woven carbon fabric prepreg plies. Voids are shown...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes the methods and equipments involved in the preparation of specimens for examination by light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis for microindentation hardness testing, and for quantification of microstructural parameters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Micrograph of a carbon fiber composite that microcracked during thermal cycling. Bright-field illumination, 65 mm macrophotograph Fig. 3 Micrograph of a composite cross section showing a microcrack that initiated on the surface of the part. Slightly uncrossed polarized light, 10× objective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.9781627081771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...-stage projection microscope. The object is at O and the final image at C, with an intermediate image at B. Fig. 4 The optical systems for the two common types of projection microscope. (a) Transmission illumination. (b) Reflected illumination Fig. 5 Microstructures of (a) a gray cast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., all of which result from the fracture process. The recording of this fracture surface information requires the failure analyst to use appropriate illumination techniques with suitable magnification to resolve and distinguish the fracture features present. The failure analysis process analyzes...