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hydroxides

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... equilibrium between a metal and one of its oxides/hydroxides. The article schematically illustrates a current-potential or polarization curve for an anodic process. kinetics aqueous corrosion equilibrium potentials electrochemical reaction Nernst equation electronic conductivity passive films...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract True alkaline chemicals include caustic soda or sodium hydroxide (NaOH), caustic potash or potassium hydroxide (KOH), and soda ash or sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ). This article reviews alkaline chemicals and provides a basis for a general discussion on various alkaline exposures. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract Ammonia and ammonium hydroxide are not particularly corrosive in themselves, but corrosion problems can arise with specific materials, particularly when contaminants are present. This article discusses the corrosion resistance of materials used for the manufacture, handling, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... Specific examples of the types of corrosion expected for the different metal-fused salt systems are also provided. The metal-fused salt systems include molten fluorides, chloride salts, molten nitrates, molten sulfates, hydroxide melts, and carbonate melts. The article concludes with information on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... cyanide based with a relatively high hydroxide content. The treatment of waste water from brass and bronze plating operations is relatively simple. Normal procedures for eliminating cyanide (i.e., treating the waste water with chlorine and adjusting pH to precipitate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... thorough rinsing, the work is ready for further processing ( Fig. 2 ). In 2006, an alternative to traditional caustic and acid etching was introduced. This patented process is being used as a true alternative to sodium hydroxide etching. This process is ammonium bifluoride based and produces a low gloss...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...), Table 6 (lead), and Table 7 (aluminum). Table 3 Some corrosion products identified on copper alloys exposed to outdoor environments Chemical name Mineral name Chemical formula Color Oxide Copper oxide Cuprite Cu 2 O Red Carbonates Copper carbonate hydroxide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... burial material, or by being located in a burial site with human remains. Table 3 Some corrosion products identified on archaeological copper alloys Chemical name Mineral name Chemical formula Color Oxides and hydroxides  Copper oxide Cuprite Cu 2 O Red Carbonates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... , NSC Cyanide SC, NSC, EC Hydroxide NSC , UV Hypophosphite R Phosphite SC , NSC Phosphate SC , NSC Pyrophosphate SC , NSC, PCR Tripolyphosphate SC , NSC, PCR Trimetaphosphate SC , NSC, PCR Tetrapolyphosphate SC , NSC, PCR Tetrametaphosphate SC , NSC, PCR...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... hydroxide if a suppressor is used). If spectrophotometric detection is used, the sensitivity will depend on the molar absorptivity of the species being detected. Detection limits typically range from low to mid parts per billion and can occasionally be decreased using sample concentration techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... salt) (NH 4 ) 2 Fe(SO 4 ) 2 ·6H 2 O … Crystalline: slightly bluish-green, sensitive to light; density, 1.86 g/cm 3 Ammonium hydrogen fluoride (NH 4 )HF 2 Acute poison, corrosive Crystalline: colorless; forms HF when in contact with acids; density, 1.21 g/cm 3 Ammonium hydroxide NH 4 OH...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... conditions Potassium stannate Sodium stannate Potassium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide Tin metal (a) Temperature Cathode current density g/L oz/gal g/L oz/gal g/L oz/gal g/L oz/gal g/L oz/gal °C °F A/dm 2 A/ft 2 A 105 14 … … 15 (b) 2 (b) … … 40 5.3 66–88 150–190 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... All carboxylic acids are soluble Solubility in dilute sodium hydroxide All carboxylic acids are soluble Ketones 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNP) Positive for all ketones (and aldehydes) Hydrazine Positive for all ketones (and aldehydes) Iodoform Positive for methyl ketones...
Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...–28 2.0–3.7 Sodium hydroxide 79 10.5 68–105 9.0–14.0 75 10.0 60–90 8.0–12.0 Sodium carbonate 15 2.0 15–60 2.0–8.0 15 2.0 15–60 2.0–8.0 Sodium polysulfide 2 0.3 2–3 0.3–0.4 2 0.3 2–3 0.3–0.4 Brightener (g) (g) 1–4 0.1–0.5 (g) (g) 1–4 0.1–0.5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... definition for E H . Just as pH is defined as −log{H + } where {H + } is the activity of the aqueous proton, pε is defined as −log{e − } where {e − } is the activity of the free aqueous electrons and is related to E H . Figure 1 ( Ref 2 ) shows such a diagram for ferric hydroxide with ionic activities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... acid is present in a pickling solution, its concentration may be determined analytically by titration with standard sodium hydroxide solution. Magnesium content can be determined rapidly with atomic absorption spectroscopy or a flame photometer. Other components of the chemical baths can be determined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... to have a very high resistance to corrosion by strong alkali solutions. Potassium hydroxide solutions do not attack hafnium until the concentration reaches 70 wt%, and then only at near-boiling temperatures. Sodium hydroxide is more aggressive toward hafnium. An upper limit appears to approximately...
Book Chapter

By Nabil Zaki
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...) Organic additive, g/L (oz/gal) 5–20 (0.66–2.7) pH 5.0–6.0 Temperature, °C (°F) 20–40 (70–100) Anodes Zinc Alkaline baths Zinc oxide, g/L (oz/gal) 10–20 (1.3–2.7) Sodium hydroxide, g/L (oz/gal) 80–150 (10–20) Cobalt salt complex, g/L (oz/gal) 1.0–2.0 (0.1–0.3) Organic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... imprint of device terminations on the gold lid of a ceramic package. The imprints are formed when the units are soaked in a sodium-hydroxide solution at an elevated temperature. The burn-in process, if not controlled properly, can result in severely tarnished leads. Tarnished leads found during this...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... metal, or with acids or bases, in order to neutralize the impregnating solution (i.e., the addition of ammonium hydroxide to a H 2 PdCl 4 impregnating solution) and precipitate the metal oxide to obtain dispersions. This step is carried out after impregnation, but before drying and further processing...