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hydrogen-induced blistering

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Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 7 Hydrogen-induced blistering in a 9.5 mm (3/8 in.) thick carbon steel plate (ASTM A 285, grade C) that had been in service one year in a refinery vessel. 1.5× More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 7 Hydrogen-induced blistering in a 9.5 mm (⅜ in.) thick carbon steel plate (ASTM A285, grade C) that had been in service one year in a refinery vessel. Original magnification: 1.5× More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the classification of hydrogen damage. Some specific types of the damage are hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen-induced blistering, cracking from precipitation of internal hydrogen, hydrogen attack, and cracking from hydride formation. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in this article as: Hydrogen embrittlement Hydrogen-induced blistering Cracking from precipitation of internal hydrogen Hydrogen attack Cracking from hydride formation Specific types of hydrogen damage Table 1 Specific types of hydrogen damage Specific damage process/mechanism...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters, and scabs...
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 33 Stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking in refinery plate steel. Note the stacked array of hydrogen blister cracks going through the thickness of the material (vertical) oriented perpendicular to the direction of the applied tensile stress (horizontal). More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., some conditions can be difficult to assess by nondestructive inspection. For example, embrittlement from hydrogen, carburization, and strain aging can be difficult to determine. Nonetheless, useful nondestructive methods ( Table 2 ) include not only conventional methods such as ultrasound, radiography...
Book Chapter

By Bruce Craig
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of stress, blistering or a form of cracking also associated with inclusions—referred to as stepwise cracking, blister cracking, or hydrogen- induced cracking (HIC)—can occur. Stepwise cracking has been observed frequently in low- strength steels subjected to H 2 S-containing environments in the absence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... stress, and stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking. The article considers hydrogen attack, corrosion fatigue, and liquid metal embrittlement and the methods of combating them. It explains the causes of velocity-accelerated corrosion and erosion-corrosion. The article summarizes some corrective...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... absorption of hydrogen Stress-corrosion cracking (sometimes) Liquid metal induced embrittlement (LMIE), for example, mercury in brass, lithium in 304 stainless steel Solid metal induced embrittlement (SMIE) The following sections describe more detail of some typical embrittlement mechanisms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... catalyzed resin coatings exfoliation aluminum-copper alloys erosion corrosion cavitation fretting economic design corrosion control stress-corrosion cracking hydrogen damage MATERIALS SELECTION AND DESIGN are of equal importance in achieving the desired performance and life expectancy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Hydrogen embrittlement by grain-boundary absorption of hydrogen Stress-corrosion cracking, can be intergranular or transgranular Liquid metal induced embrittlement, for example, mercury in brass, lithium in 304 stainless steel Solid metal induced embrittlement Low-melting-temperature elements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-6Al-4V with tungsten inclusion. Kroll’s etch. (b) Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy graph of tungsten inclusion Voids Caused by Hydrogen Entrapped hydrogen can expand during subsequent heat treatment, leaving voids (blisters) and distorting the metal ( Fig. 34 ). Fig. 34...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...-induced interfacial degradation exists under exposure to gaseous hydrogen ( Ref 27 ) or during cathodic hydrogen discharge ( Ref 28 ). The latter may result from an appropriate combination of local galvanic electrocoupling and moisture environment that is quite common for microelectronics applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... form of embrittlement and influences the behavior and properties of nearly all ferrous alloys and many metals. The article explains why hydrogen embrittlement is so widespread and reviews the many types of damage it can cause. It also explores other forms of embrittlement, including metal-induced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004182
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... alloys, precious metals, and non-metals. The article also discusses the hydrogen blistering and stress-corrosion cracking of carbon steels in high-temperature HF and AHF. low-alloy steel carbon steel austenitic stainless steel nickel-rich austenitic stainless steel copper alloys corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... hydrogen (H) can react with the matrix or with an alloying element to form a hydride (MH x ). Hydride phase formation can be either spontaneous or strain induced. Atomic hydrogen can combine to form molecular hydrogen (H 2 ). This problem is frequently encountered after steel processing and welding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... segregation Ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage High hydrogen content Nonmetallic inclusions Unmelted electrodes and shelf Cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters, and scabs Chemical Segregation The elements in a cast alloy are seldom distributed uniformly. Even unalloyed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... embrittlement is a form of hydrogen-induced damage that is typically associated with delayed, brittle fracture. Other forms of hydrogen damage, such as steam embrittlement in copper alloys and hydrogen blistering, are less common in medical device materials/applications and are not discussed here. Medical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.9781627081825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5