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hydrogen environment embrittlement

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of Susceptibility of Metals to Embrittlement in Hydrogen-Containing Environments at High Pressure, High Temperature, or Both” ASTM F 1459, “Standard Test Method for Determination of the Susceptibility of Metallic Materials to Gaseous Hydrogen EmbrittlementHydrogen Environmental Embrittlement Hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... SCC found in oil fields ( Ref 23 ). Interpretation of Test Results The phenomenon of hydrogen embrittlement or SCC is very complex. The test results depend on environmental conditions (potential, pH, oxygenation level, temperature, environment), material and melting procedure (air, vacuum...
Book Chapter

By Bruce Craig
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Shatter cracks, flakes, fisheyes Micro-perforation Degradation in flow properties Metal hydride formation Hydrogen environment embrittlement Hydrogen stress cracking Loss in tensile ductility Typical materials Steels, nickel-base alloys, metastable stainless steel, titanium alloys Carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... than 10 to less than 10 −10 mm/s depending on the environment, load condition, and material. In broad terms, environmentally assisted cracking includes stress-corrosion cracking, hydrogen embrittlement, and corrosion fatigue. Although these phenomena represent distinct forms of cracking, they also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... classification breaks hydrogen embrittlement into three types ( Ref 3 , 4 ): Internal reversible hydrogen embrittlement Hydrogen environment embrittlement Hydrogen reaction embrittlement This division is roughly equivalent to the classification of hydrogen embrittlement in steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... and intermetallic compounds as a result of exposure to their environment. environmentally induced cracking corrosion intermetallic compound THIS SUBSECTION was developed to introduce the fundamental aspects of environmentally induced cracking. It provides theoretical basis for further discussions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by a variety of environmental conditions, such as hydrogen embrittlement, SCC, and corrosion. If the process occurs by oxidation or dissolution, it is corrosion. If the cracking is exacerbated by corrosion and the simultaneous presence of an applied or residual tensile stress, then it is regarded as SCC. Other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of environmental conditions, such as hydrogen embrittlement, stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), and corrosion. If the process occurs by oxidation or dissolution, it is corrosion. If the cracking is exacerbated by corrosion and the simultaneous presence of an applied or residual tensile stress, then it is regarded...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... range of failures, including fatigue failure, distortion failure, wear failure, corrosion failure, stress-corrosion cracking, liquid-metal embrittlement, hydrogen-damage failure, corrosion-fatigue failure, and elevated-temperature failure. This article describes the classification of fractures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... mechanisms for SCC. It discusses the materials, environmental, and mechanical factors that control hydrogen embrittlement and SCC behavior of different engineering materials with emphasis on carbon and low-alloy steels, high-strength steels, stainless steels, nickel-base alloys, aluminum alloys, and titanium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... the effects of acids, salts, and miscellaneous corrosive reagents on tantalum and applications for tantalum equipment in chemical, pharmaceutical, and other industries. Finally, the article presents a discussion on hydrogen embrittlement, the galvanic effects, and cathodic protection of tantalum and describes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the fracture that results from this type of attack is predominantly transgranular. Hydrogen Embrittlement Only recently has it been determined that hydrogen embrittles aluminum. For many years, all environmental cracking of aluminum and aluminum alloys was represented as SCC; however, testing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... triaxiality. This method has been used extensively to study the effect of heat treatment (hardness) and environment on hydrogen stress cracking of AISI type 4340 steels ( Fig. 14 ). Fig. 14 Hydrogen embrittlement crack growth rate as a function of applied stress intensity for two different hardnesses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., therefore, can be interpreted less ambiguously than similar effects in other environments, such as hydrogen and temper embrittlement of metals. Thus, solid-liquid environmental effects provide a unique opportunity to study embrittlement mechanisms in a simple and direct manner under controlled conditions...
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
that the organic compounds used at an overseas plant (unbeknown to the manufacturers) contained over 300 ppm hydrogen. This figure is near a weld area. Original magnification: 11× Control: A hydrogen-free environment had been envisioned. Process control and alternative materials were later adopted. Hydrogen More
Image
Published: 01 January 2024
Fig. 22 Side view of a predominantly brittle fracture in a high-strength steel bolt. Brittle fracture was the result of hydrogen embrittlement when hydrogen was absorbed during an acid pickling process. Final fracture was by ductile shear, as indicated by the roughly 45° angle of the fracture More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract This article examines the embrittlement of iron and carbon steels. It describes compositional, processing, and service conditions that contribute to the problem and presents examples of how embrittlement influences mechanical properties. Embrittlement due to hydrogen is the most common...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of liquid mercury is shown in Fig. 32 . More detailed information on hydrogen embrittlement, SCC, and liquid-metal embrittlement can be found later in this article in the section “Effect of Environment.” When a decohesive rupture occurs along flattened, elongated grains that form nearly uninterrupted...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in formation of surface hydride films that generally are stable and cause no problems. At temperatures above 75 °C (170 °F), however, the hydrogen may diffuse into the titanium metal, causing embrittlement. In some environments, titanium hydride is unstable and decomposes or reacts, with a resultant loss...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... carbon content of 0.15%, alloy 200 will precipitate elemental carbon or graphite in the grain boundaries when heated in the range of 315 to 760 °C (600 to 1400 °F). This results in embrittlement and susceptibility to intergranular corrosion in certain environments, such as high-temperature caustic. Where...