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hydrofluoric acid

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosive media include: hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrobromic acid, nitric acid, organic acids, salts, seawater, and alkalis. The modes of high-temperature corrosion include oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, sulfidation, nitridation, corrosion by halogens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.../gal) chromium trioxide, 60 g/L (8 oz/gal) sulfuric acid, and 60 g/L (8 oz/gal) hydro-fluoric acid in water, used at room temperature in an immersion system. Another solution used frequently for cleaning stainless steel is a solution of nitric acid (10 to 50 vol%) and hydrofluoric acid (1 to 3 vol%) in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and strip. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is also used for special purposes, such as etching before galvanizing or tinning. Nitric-hydrofluoric acid mixtures are used to pickle stainless steel. Hydrofluoric acid is sometimes used when pickling castings to remove sand. Mixtures of hydrochloric and sulfuric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... removes impurities, specifically embedded iron, from the surface and removes other surface imperfections where pitting may be initiated. Pickling hafnium requires a solution of 3 to 7% hydrofluoric acid (48% concentration) with 25 to 59% nitric acid (70% concentration) and the balance of water. Heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... ). In the region where niobium pentoxide (Nb 2 O 5 ) is formed, shown on the Pourbaix diagram between lines a and b , the compound is thermodynamically stable in the presence of water and noncomplexing acid, alkaline, and neutral solutions. This oxide can be attacked in concentrated hydrofluoric acid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...) E Hydrocyanic acid … … E Hydrofluoric acid 5–48 Room NR Hydrofluoric acid (anhydrous) 100 Room NR Hydrofluoric acid vapors … Room NR Hydrofluoric-nitric acid 1 HF:15 HNO 3 Room NR Hydrofluosilicic acid 5 Room V Hydrofluosilicic acid vapors … 100 (212) NR...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... sunlight can promote this decomposition. Therefore, the use of HI is often limited. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) can dissolve glasses, silicates, quartz, and other siliceous materials but must be used with great caution ( Ref 14 ). HF causes severe skin burns, sometimes leading to gangrene, and may cause...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Anodizing refers to conversion coating of the surface of aluminum and its alloys to porous aluminum oxide. This article provides the reasons for performing anodizing and discusses the three principal types of anodizing processes, namely, chromic acid process, sulfuric acid process, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... as shot blasting. The final step, however, involves elimination of scale and other surface defects through removal of the normal, protective oxide layer and 25 to 40 μm (0.001 to 0.0015 in.) of the substrate metal by pickling the surface in a nitric-hydrofluoric acid (HNO 3 -HF) bath. The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... vol% hydrofluoric acid. This solution should be used at a maximum temperature of 60 °C (140 °F). The time required for pickling depends on the alloy, the thickness of the scale, and the temperature of the solution. For pickling following abrasive blast cleaning, the time need be only several minutes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... 331 44.3 Fluoboric acid, free HBF 4 1.8 29 3.9 Boric acid, free H 3 BO 3 1.0 16 2.1 Fluoboric acid Fluoboric acid, HBF 4 49 671 89.9 Boric acid, free H 3 BO 3 0.6 8.3 1.1 Hydrofluoric acid, free HF None … … (a) Equivalent The reason that excess...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the nitric-hydrofluoric acid cleaning process described later in this section. When thinner sections such as sheet or plate are subjected to abrasive blasting on one side for an extended length of time without being turned over, the thermal stress caused by the temperature difference across the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... operations due to inadequate rinsing. Dilute sulfuric acid, 0.25 to 0.75 wt%, is most often used; the immersion time ranges from 25 to 45 s with the solution at room temperature ( Ref 5 , 6 ). Similar solutions of hydrofluoric acid or a mixture of sulfuric or hydrofluoric acids also are effective. For very...
Book Chapter

By George B. Rynne
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... achieved with a fluoroborate bath of the following composition: Basic lead carbonate, 2PbCO 3 · Pb(OH 2 ) 300 g/L (40 oz/gal) Hydrofluoric acid (50% HF) 480 g/L (64 oz/gal) Boric acid, H 3 BO 3 212 g/L (28 oz/gal) Glue 0.2 g/L (0.03 oz/gal) A bath of half the above concentration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... concentrated or dilute acid solutions that contain oxidizing agents. The acids commonly used are sulfuric, nitric, phosphoric, acetic, and, to a lesser extent, chromic and hydrofluoric. Ammonium bifluoride is used when it is desirable to avoid the hazards that attend the use of hydrofluoric acid. Fluoboric and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... hydrofluoric acid (HF), passivate silver under favorable conditions by forming a stable protective film. Silver-lined vessels are used for the bromination of organic materials, but hydrobromic acid (HBr) exposure is limited to room temperature and a maximum of 14% acid. Similarly, silver is restricted to room...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Hydrocyanic acid, dry E E E E E E E E E Hydrocyanic acid, moist P P P P P P P P P Hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous G G P G G G G G G Hydrofluoric acid, hydrated F F P F F F F F F Hydrofluosilicic acid G G P G G G G G G Hydrogen (d) E E E E E E E...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... describes the corrosion behavior of copper alloys in specific environments. It reviews the corrosion characteristics of copper and copper alloys in various acids, alkalis, salts, organic compounds, and gases. The article provides information on the behavior of copper alloys that is susceptible to stress...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... particular, alloys containing 30 to 40% Cu offer useful resistance to nonaerated sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) and offer excellent resistance to all concentrations of nonaerated hydrofluoric acid (HF). Additions of 2 to 3% Cu to nickel-chromium-molybdenum-iron alloys have also been found to improve resistance to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... apparent effect on tin, but above 100 °C (212 °F), stannous sulfide (SnS) forms. Stannous sulfide and stannic sulfide (SnS 2 ) are also formed by reacting tin with sulfur at high temperatures. Tin also reacts readily with SCl 2 , S 2 Cl 2 , NOF, and hydrofluoric acid (HF). Tin is readily attacked by...