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hydrochloric acid

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Pickling is the most common of several processes used to remove scale from steel surfaces. This article provides a discussion on pickling solutions, such as sulfuric and hydrochloric acid, and describes the role of inhibitors in acid pickling. It discusses the equipment and processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosive media include: hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrobromic acid, nitric acid, organic acids, salts, seawater, and alkalis. The modes of high-temperature corrosion include oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, sulfidation, nitridation, corrosion by halogens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... hafnium in specific media, namely, water, steam, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, alkalis, organics, molten metals, and gases. Forms of corrosion, namely, galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, and pitting corrosion are included. The article explains the corrosion of hafnium alloys such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... acid, citric acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), formic acid, gluconic acid, and hydroxyacetic acid. Depending on the application, acids may be used alone, but often are formulated with bases and other additives. Organic acids often replace mineral acids, such as hydrochloric and sulfuric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... environments. These environments include mineral acids, many organic acids, liquid metals, and most salt solutions. One application is the heating of hydrochloric acid, using niobium steam-heating coils, to pickle carbon steel. Another application for niobium is for overhead condenser and heat-recovery...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... … Hydrobromic acid Generation Chemical Bayonet heaters, coils, condensers, synthetic HBr plants … Hydrochloric acid Production, purification, recovery, processing Chemical, pharmaceutical, food Bayonet heaters, heat exchangers, coils, condensers, HCl absorbers, synthetic HCl plants, acid coolers, gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... insufficient for analysis, solid samples can be dissolved using nonoxidizing acids and/or acid mixtures. For this purpose, any of the hydrohalic acids can be employed; hydrochloric acid (HCl) is the most common choice. HCl is capable of dissolving a wide range of metals, ranging from alkali metals (sodium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... cleaner films from the surfaces. The activation step is usually carried out with the use of an acid to remove inorganic soils, oxides, or cleaner films from the surfaces. The acid used depends on the type of substrate to be plated. The most commonly used acids in preplate processes are hydrochloric acid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Passivation; pickling, that is, acid descaling; electropolishing; and mechanical cleaning are important surface treatments for the successful performance of stainless steel used for piping, pressure vessels, tanks, and machined parts in a wide variety of applications. This article...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion. The high molybdenum (∼28%) in Hastelloy B, B-2, and B-3 promote good corrosion resistance in the presence of hydrochloric acid and other strongly reducing chemicals. Additions of copper provide improvement in the resistance of nickel to nonoxidizing acid. In...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., dry, or dip in rust preventative Solvent wipe Vapor degrease Phosphoric acid etch Solvent wipe Emulsion dip or spray, rinse Vapor degrease Alkaline spray Solvent wipe Emulsion soak, barrel rinse, electrolytic alkaline rinse, hydrochloric acid dip, rinse Continuous high production Automatic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... exercised when using this technique for two reasons. It is easy for particles of the abrasive medium to become embedded in the surface of the material, and it is not always possible to remove them if they are ceramic. If “iron” grit is used, embedded particles may be removed with hydrochloric acid, or by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... cleaning steps should be separated with a thorough rinse. Plating is initiated on an active surface. A wide variety of activators is available, and most are acidic in nature. Hydrochloric, sulfuric, or fluoboric acids are commonly used. Water rinse after activation is critical to avoid contaminating...
Book Chapter

By George B. Rynne
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...., Anoplate Corporation, for providing information for this article. Lead can be plated directly on steel from the fluoborate bath using the following cycle: Degrease with solvent (optional) Alkali clean (anodic) Water rinse Dip in 10% fluoboric acid (Hydrochloric or sulfuric acid should not...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... complex-shaped parts with deep recesses and other irregularities Pickling Done in hot, strong solutions of sulfamic, phosphoric, sulfuric, or hydrochloric acid Scale Complete removal of scale from mill products and fabricated parts Electrolytic pickling removes scale twice as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Hard chromium plating is produced by electrodeposition from a solution containing chromic acid and a catalytic anion in proper proportion. This article presents the major uses of hard chromium plating, and focuses on the selection factors, plating solutions, solution and process...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... stage corresponding to solution 3. Quarterly : cleaner, water rinse, and phosphate stages should receive heated acidic cleanout. Blocked nozzles should be removed and cleaned or replaced. Heated acidic cleanout may involve inhibited hydrochloric acid. Fig. 3 Sequence of operations for spray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... (the fineness of silver is the pure silver content per 1000 parts of alloy). Silver can be used in hydrochloric acid (HCl), but results can be unsatisfactory under strongly aerating conditions when the concentration of acid and the temperature are increased. The halide acids, with the exception of...
Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... plating where they are useful to minimize roughness. Bags may be made of polypropylene, Dynel, or nylon. Before being used they should be leached for 24 h in a 5% hydrochloric acid solution containing 0.1% of the carrier or wetting agent used in the particular plating bath. Zinc, total chloride, pH, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... aluminum for cleanliness are to: Spray or coat the work surface with, or dip a test panel into, an unheated aqueous solution containing 30 g/L (4 oz/gal) of cupric chloride and 29 mL/L (3.8 fluid oz/gal) of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Uniform gassing or a deposit of copper indicates that the...