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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... wind power, hydro power, biomass and biofuels, solar energy, and fuel cells. biomass fuels corrosion protection hydro power renewable energy solar energy solid oxide fuel cells thermal spray applications wind power IN RECENT YEARS, renewable energy has continued to grow strongly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... knife can be adjusted to maintain optimal clearance between the knives. Squaring shears can be actuated mechanically, hydraulically, or pneumatically. Mechanical Shears The power train of a mechanical shear consists of a motor, the flywheel, a worm shaft that is gear driven by a flywheel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... of electricity from the various energy sources such as coal, gas, nuclear energy, or renewable energy. The world average value for 1996 ( Fig. 14 ) is quite low because a large amount of electricity worldwide is produced from hydro power. Looking to the conversion factors for Germany, in 1996 the values were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Gas Association and Electric Power Research Institute, Sept 1978 16. Study of Problems Associated with Pipelines Occupying Joint-Use Corridors with AC Transmission Lines , Canadian Electric Association, by BC Hydro and Power Authority, 1979 17. Kacicnik A. , Warnke D.H...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
..., and the constitutive response of metals during forming. The development of powerful user-friendly finite-element codes for process simulation and design, the advent of rapid prototyping applications, the adoption of flexible binder technology, and the use of adaptive process controls have been among the most recent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... strength Oxide content, % Relative process cost (a) Maximum spray rate Power m 3 /h ft 3 /h °C °F m/s ft/s kg/h lb/h kW hp Flame powder 11 400 2200 4000 30 100 3 Low 6 3 7 15 25–75 34–100 Flame wire 71 2500 2800 5000 180 600 4 Medium 4 3 9 20 50–100 70...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... production in land-based power plants and for jet engines, low-emission energy-effective engines for cars, lightweight metallic foams for absorbing crashes, so-called supermetals (amorphous metallic alloys) as thin sheets for electronic components with ultimate strength, high-performance magnets, medical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the plasma-generation process. Radio-frequency power is applied to the induction coils surrounding the torch (or quartz tube), generating electric and magnetic fields. An argon flow is carried at the center of the torch, where a Tesla discharge will ignite the plasma. Fig. 3 General structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... In arc welding, which includes the first five processes listed previously, heat losses by convection and radiation to the surroundings are taken into account by the efficiency factor, η, defined as: (Eq 1) η = q 0 / ( I U ) where q 0 is the net power received...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... the pressure is low, very little heat is lost by convection from the part to the container. If the glow completely covers the part, the current is constant per unit area, resulting in a very uniform case ( Fig. 4 ). However, cold-walled furnaces (with constant dc power supplies) present several limitations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and steels can be applied almost universally. Performing life assessment investigations of nuclear and fossil-fuel power plant equipment established many of the techniques described in this article. Power plants routinely use field metallography to assess the useful life of turbine rotors and blades...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... 2.75  Oil 3.07  Gas 11.53  Hydro 0.46  Nuclear 1.53  Other 0.14   Total 19.48 Energy from feedstocks, MJ  Coal <0.01  Oil 32.75  Gas 33.59  Other <0.01   Total feedstock 66.35   Total energy input, MJ 85.83 Raw materials, mg...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract Ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) absorption spectroscopy is a powerful yet cost-effective tool that is widely used to identify organic compounds and to measure the concentration of principal and trace constituents in liquid, gas, and solid test samples. This article emphasizes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... information on process capabilities, principles of operation, power sources, electrodes, shielding gases, flux, process variables, and advantages and disadvantages of these arc welding methods. It presents information about the arc welding procedures of hardenable carbon and alloy steels, cast irons...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...–0.24 bal IRECA (b) 0.2 17–19 9–10 2–3 … 9–10 … 0.2 bal (a) Developed by the Electric Power Research Institute. (b) Developed by Hydro-Québec. IRECA denotes Improved REsistance to CAvitation. Nonferrous Alloys Nonferrous hardfacing alloys are used either for high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... problems in a number of industries. In the power-generation industry, erosion damage has occurred to boiler tubes and waterwalls ( Ref 2 – 16 ), steam turbines ( Ref 17 – 19 ), land-based gas turbines ( Ref 20 – 22 ), solids-transport systems ( Ref 16 , 23 – 27 ), cyclones ( Ref 16 , 27 – 29 ), valves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.9781627081740
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by fusion welding ( Ref 18 ) or explosive bonding ( Ref 19 ) to protect regions subject to liquid impact. In particular, the effectiveness of cobalt-containing weld overlays, such as Stellite 6 (ST-6), Stellite 21 (ST-21), and the IRECA series of stainless steels developed by Hydro Quebec ( Ref 20 ), has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... size and/or weight, it would be simple to obtain the desired hardness ( Ref 1 ). In practice, however, such conditions rarely exist. Workpiece configuration, cooling power of the quenching medium, temperature of the quenching medium, and degree of agitation are the principal variables that must...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... into a matched die, then formed/cooled under pressure. Hydro Similar to press, but hydrostatic fluid replaces one die half Diaphragm Sheet or tack seamed stacks are placed between extendable plates or bagging, heated in a one-sided die, and pressure blown to shape. Induction Similar to diaphragm...