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hydride formation

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the classification of hydrogen damage. Some specific types of the damage are hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen-induced blistering, cracking from precipitation of internal hydrogen, hydrogen attack, and cracking from hydride formation. The article...
Book Chapter

By Bruce Craig
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., fisheyes Micro-perforation Degradation in flow properties Metal hydride formation Hydrogen environment embrittlement Hydrogen stress cracking Loss in tensile ductility Typical materials Steels, nickel-base alloys, metastable stainless steel, titanium alloys Carbon and low-alloy steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... by repeating the same process at the crack tip and, as such, is a discontinuous process. It should be noted that the formation of hydrides is not a necessary requirement for this mechanism to operate, as is the case in delayed hydrogen embrittlement in high-strength steels. Stress and stress gradient...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... itself in one of several ways. The types of interactions between hydrogen and metals include the formation of solid solutions of hydrogen in metals, molecular hydrogen, gaseous products from reactions between hydrogen and alloying or segregated impurity elements, or brittle intermetallic hydride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., and so forth. These hydrides are often brittle and in alloy/environment systems where hydride precipitation is feasible, crack propagation is assisted by either cracking through the hydrides or along the hydride-matrix interfaces. Because of the volume expansion that occurs upon formation of metal...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Hoff reaction isotherm yields a value for a H 2 / a H 2 O that is even higher than the corresponding quotient for aluminum. In the absence of hydride formation, hydrogen dissolution in magnesium and its alloys is in the atomic form. Gas in cast iron, aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Fig. 19 The initial reaction rate of uranium bearing an air-formed oxide with hydrogen gas at 25 °C (77 °F) exhibits a cubic dependence on time. The inset micrographs show that, as time progresses, hydride sites grow and new sites are initiated. Crown copyright—used by permission. Source: Ref 82...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... at room temperature it is below 1 ppm. Thus, after irradiation, the oxidized cladding exhibits precipitation of zirconium hydrides as platelets. The morphology of the hydride platelets is controlled by the cooling rate (hydrogen diffusion kinetics), by the stress state (hydrides expand at formation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... be produced either by thermite reactions (the reduction of an oxide with a metallic powder that has a very high negative free energy of oxide formation) or by reduction with metal hydrides. Thermite reactions include the reduction of chromium trioxide with magnesium and the reduction of uranium dioxide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... as measured by change in length during heating of TiH 2 and titanium compacts Fig. 2 Ti-6Al-4V produced from titanium and titanium hydride powders. (a) Comparison of the influence of compaction pressure on sintered densities of each. (b) The microstructure of sintered Ti-6Al-4V material produced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... of highly oxidizing to mildly reducing potentials, whereas oxide film breakdown and the resultant corrosion of titanium occur under reducing acidic conditions. Under strongly reducing (cathodic) conditions, titanium hydride formation is predicted. This range of oxide film stability and passivation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
..., such as Th(NO 3 ) 4 , which can be added as aqueous solutions, are common precursors. Such precursors decompose into oxides that are thermodynamically stable even during hydrogen reduction. Hydrides, such as ZrH 2 , are used as precursors along with carbon additions to form in situ carbides. Powder forms...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with water that contains dissolved solids in comparatively small concentrations, the amounts present being insufficient or unsuitable to cause formation of protective films or deposits but sufficient to raise the electrical conductivity of the water so that it becomes an electrolyte. Invariably, the cathodic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... magnification tube section for microscopic examination of the grain structure. (a) Original magnification: 12×. (b) Original magnification: 200× Fig. 17 Zr702 plate, longitudinal, attack polished, etchant procedure No. 4 ( Table 2 ), bright field. The micrograph shows the presence of hydrides...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... is covered briefly in this article; additional information is provided in the article “Electron Probe X-Ray Microanalysis” in this Volume. In addition to image formation and microchemical analysis, the scanning electron microscope provides several additional functions that will be discussed briefly...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001747
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... pressures, cyanogen formation, although slight, is detectable and must be removed. Oxygen can be detected as CO or as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), depending on system design. Oxygen as CO is generally detected using an infrared system that is highly discriminate and requires no further gas separation after...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... energies of formation of the rare earth and some selected nonrare earth nitrides as a function of temperature The metals will easily hydride at elevated temperatures (400 to 600 °C, or 750 to 1100 °F). Unless special care is taken, when the metal is hydrided up to and beyond RH 2 in hydrogen...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... can result. Because titanium is nearly always the cathodic member of any galvanic couple, hydrogen may be evolved at its surface in an amount proportional to the galvanic current flow. This can result in formation of surface hydride films that generally are stable and cause no problems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... mL HNO 3 , 30 mL lactic acid Reveals hydrides in unalloyed titanium 1 mL HF, 30 mL HNO 3 , 30 mL lactic acid Reveals hydrides in unalloyed titanium Kroll's reagent: 1–3 mL HF, 2–6 mL HNO 3 , H 2 O to 1000 mL General-purpose etch for most alloys 10 mL HF, 5 mL HNO 3 , 85 mL H 2 O General...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... substrate during the high-temperature nitriding operation. For titanium alloys, the effects of hydrogen contamination on mechanical properties are highly dependent on the specific phase of the titanium alloy microstructure. For example, α-phase titanium alloys are prone to titanium hydride formation ( Ref...