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hydride formation

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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 34 Hydride formation in Ti-grade 2 (R50400) after galvanic coupling to carbon steel in sour water at 110 °C (230 °F) More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the classification of hydrogen damage. Some specific types of the damage are hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen-induced blistering, cracking from precipitation of internal hydrogen, hydrogen attack, and cracking from hydride formation. The article...
Book Chapter

By Bruce Craig
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., blistering, hydride formation, and loss in tensile ductility. For many years, these failures have been collectively termed hydrogen embrittlement; this term persists even though it is improperly used to describe a multitude of failure modes involving hydrogen, several of which do not demonstrate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in this article as: Hydrogen embrittlement Hydrogen-induced blistering Cracking from precipitation of internal hydrogen Hydrogen attack Cracking from hydride formation Specific types of hydrogen damage Table 1 Specific types of hydrogen damage Specific damage process/mechanism...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... through the hydrides or along the hydride-matrix interfaces. Because of the volume expansion that occurs upon formation of metal hydrides, high tensile stress at the crack-tip region would promote the formation of stress-assisted hydrides. In alloys that form stable hydrides, hydride formation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... the same process at the crack tip and, as such, is a discontinuous process. It should be noted that the formation of hydrides is not a necessary requirement for this mechanism to operate, as is the case in delayed hydrogen embrittlement in high-strength steels. Stress and stress gradient are two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... such as precipitation from salt solution and gas, chemical embrittlement, hydride decomposition, and thermite reactions are also discussed. The article also discusses the methods used to produce powders electrolytically and the types of metal powders produced. The physical and chemical characteristics of these powders...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... it is below 1 ppm. Thus, after irradiation, the oxidized cladding exhibits precipitation of zirconium hydrides as platelets. The morphology of the hydride platelets is controlled by the cooling rate (hydrogen diffusion kinetics), by the stress state (hydrides expand at formation), and by the crystallographic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... of hydride corrosion of uranium are discussed. The article provides information on environmentally assisted cracking, protective coatings, and surface modification of uranium and its alloys. It also summarizes the environmental, safety, and health considerations for their use. atmospheric corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... for the blended elemental titanium alloy part production. Source: Ref 7 Consolidation Methods Die Pressing Die pressing is the most common powder metallurgy process to consolidate the powder into the complex shaped components. This manufacturing process provides direct formation of dimensionally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... decompose into oxides that are thermodynamically stable even during hydrogen reduction. Hydrides, such as ZrH 2 , are used as precursors along with carbon additions to form in situ carbides. Powder forms of the dispersoids must generally have particle sizes of less than 1 μm (40 μin.) to effectively pin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... for grinding and polishing or have a surface that must be preserved may be mounted using hot- or cold-mounting methods. Cold mounting may be preferred if the material is to be studied for the presence of hydrides in order to avoid alteration due to high temperature encountered during the mounting process. Cold...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... higher than the corresponding quotient for aluminum. In the absence of hydride formation, hydrogen dissolution in magnesium and its alloys is in the atomic form. Hydrogen Solubility and Reactions during Solidification The solubility of hydrogen in pure magnesium has been experimentally determined...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in formation of surface hydride films that generally are stable and cause no problems. At temperatures above 75 °C (170 °F), however, the hydrogen may diffuse into the titanium metal, causing embrittlement. In some environments, titanium hydride is unstable and decomposes or reacts, with a resultant loss...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001747
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... of heated carbon for nitrogen is not high at elevated pressures, cyanogen formation, although slight, is detectable and must be removed. Oxygen can be detected as CO or as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), depending on system design. Oxygen as CO is generally detected using an infrared system that is highly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... or a closed-cell chemical-resistant foam pad is recommended. For increased edge retention a Dacron or polyester cloth is preferred. A semiautomatic method is used for most titanium alloys as well as commercially pure (CP) titanium when not inspecting for hydrides. The same 50/50 mix of 3% hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... in stability. Fig. 7 The standard free energies of formation of the rare earth and some selected nonrare earth nitrides as a function of temperature The metals will easily hydride at elevated temperatures (400 to 600 °C, or 750 to 1100 °F). Unless special care is taken, when the metal is hydrided...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... the diffusion processes in the solid and thus the known solubility of this gas in titanium apart from the formation of hydrides ( Ref 6 , 20 , 22 , 23 , 25 , 29 ). Therefore, the kinetics of such processes cannot be compared in terms of rate of diffusion; they are just simply different. The process carried...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on the formation of a protective oxide scale for corrosion protection. When hydrogen sulfide is present, it interferes with the formation of such a layer, forming a sulfide layer instead. Unlike the oxide layer, the sulfide scale is not protective, and it allows corrosion, as well as diffusion and concentration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... densification mechanism is the rearrangement of the particles. At higher pressures, the formation of new contacts, the breaking of agglomerates and oxide skins, and cold welding become the dominant mechanisms. Typical compacting pressures for commercial tungsten production and the resulting green densities...