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hydration

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... hydrated tribochemical layers. It concludes with information on the tribological applications of structural ceramics and composites. ceramics composites friction lubrication silicon carbide silicon nitride structural ceramics superlow friction wear CERAMICS are solid materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... the surface finish of pharmaceutical equipment. Rouge is iron oxide, and its different colors result from different valences and degrees of hydration. The article discusses the classification of rouge and the characteristics of cast type 316L stainless steel. It explains how and when to perform cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... resistance, and thermal or electrical responses. The general principle behind most types of sealing is to fill the open-pore structure of the anodic coating by converting the amorphous aluminum oxide as formed to a crystalline form of aluminum oxide ( Ref 1 ). This hydrated aluminum oxide, which has more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... are highly corrosive to ordinary equipment. Pitting and roughness can be a problem if the bath is not controlled properly. Extreme brittleness can result from the presence of codeposited hydrated Fe(III) or Fe(II) oxide as well as codeposition of organic additive breakdown products. Today the principal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... often. Fillers enhance the appearance of molded parts, promote flow of the glass reinforcement during the molding cycle, and reduce the overall cost of the compound. Commonly used fillers include calcium carbonate, hydrated alumina, and clay. Calcium carbonates are readily available and can be added...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...)] and trivalent [Cr(III)] chromium in the coating. Trivalent chromium is believed to be present as an insoluble hydrated oxide, whereas hexavalent chromium imparts a “self-healing” character to the film during oxidative (corrosive) attack by species such as chloride ion. Self-healing refers to the ability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... of Hydrated Portland Cement,” Research Department Bulletin RX087, Portland Cement Association , Skokie, IL , 1958 10.1520/STP39460S 4. Montani R. , Concrete's Forgotten Enemy , Concrete Repair Digest , Dec 1995 / Jan 1996 , p 330 – 333 5. McGovern M. , Combating Balcony...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., primary water molecules. A detailed description of the hydration of ions in solution is given in Ref 1 . Fig. 1 Schematic of the primary and secondary solvent molecules around a cation in water Ions and polar water molecules are attracted to the metal-aqueous solution interface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... to the formation of titanium-base oxides, hydrated complexes, or aqueous cationic species as a result of active anodic dissolution. The oxide and hydrated-complex layers function as barriers between the surrounding environment and the underlying metallic titanium, which inhibit the subsequent oxidation of metallic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... study by the industry. Different combinations of lead oxides and sulfates, with different degrees of hydration, are obtained under various conditions of temperature, airflow, and humidity. Clearly, corrosion of the residual free lead during curing partly determines the composition and structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... , in Thin Solid Films , Vol 230 , 1993 , p 156 Conversion coating does not simply involve the deposition of a thin layer of, for example, hydrated metal oxide that “converts” a surface to a corrosion resistant state ( Ref 3 ). As illustrated in Fig. 1 , an Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... is a great flocculation additive but causes the raw water pH to drop. It is therefore typical to add sodium hydroxide or hydrated lime or calcium carbonate to the water at the same stage to maintain the water pH in the near-neutral range. When ferric chloride is used as a coagulant, sodium aluminate may also...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... to form a paste, react slowly at ambient temperatures to produce a coherent, hardened mass with valuable engineering properties. The hardened product is porous and consists primarily of a poorly crystalline calcium silicate hydrate ( Ref 22 , 23 ). The main uses of these cements are in civil engineering...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., presented at the Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy , 1967 42. Bandi W.R. et al. , Anal. Chem. , Vol 38 , 1966 , p 1336 – 1341 10.1021/ac60242a012 43. “Chemical Analysis of Limestone, Quicklime, and Hydrated Lime,” “Chemical Analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... were based on styrenic monomers providing a combination of high capacity and excellent chemical stability. Such polymers are composed of an ionic polymer backbone that has been cross-linked to form an immobilized ionic gel, rendering them highly hydrated but water insoluble. The concentration of ion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... small amount of a calcium sulfate known as gypsum. The resulting mixture is cementitious and reacts with water through a process known as hydration. Cements employed in concrete are known as hydraulic cements. The reaction products that result from several simultaneous hydration processes form...
Book Chapter

By Jude Mary Runge
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... as a sponge. Quite the opposite, based on the chemical principle of “like dissolves like,” hydrous solutions tend to dissolve hydrated structures, if only limited to the surface. This is also the primary reaction for sealing. Temperature, of course, affects the extent of the reductive dissolution reaction...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... parts, promote flow of the glass reinforcement during the molding cycle, and reduce the overall cost of the compound. Commonly used fillers include calcium carbonate, hydrated alumina, and clay. Calcium carbonates are readily available and can be added to polyester resin in large amounts, while still...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003086
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the oxide film is still so thin that it is quite transparent (about 1 nm thick). The corrosion product that forms on the surface of bare metals exposed to air, however, is seldom a simple oxide such as the thin barrier layer of Al 2 O 3 that forms aluminum. In moist air, a more permeable layer of hydrated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... for a favorable life-cycle cost evaluation, require that claims about long-term durability can be substantiated through previous experience or test data. In the presence of moisture, iron combines with atmospheric oxygen or dissolved oxygen to form a hydrated iron oxide, commonly called rust. The oxide...