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human-machine systems

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Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 2 Schematic representation of a human-machine system showing basic elements and modes of function. Source: Ref 3 More
Image
Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of basic functions performed by human or machine components of human-machine systems. Source: Ref 2 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... that are considered for an acceptable level of human performance. These include the state or condition of the human being; the activity, including equipment and required tools; and the context in which the activity is performed. acceptable level equipment tools human factors human-machine systems product...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...Abstract Abstract Machine vision, also referred to as computer vision or intelligent vision, is a means of simulating the image recognition and analysis capabilities of the human eye and brain system with digital techniques. The machine vision functionality is extremely useful in inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
...-priority consideration in the design process. In many ways a human's capability can exceed that of a machine. The human can adjust to unusual situations; the machine cannot. The human can decide to go over, under, or around an obstacle, and do it; the machine cannot. In an emergency situation...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... of the machining process was primarily done by sight, sound, and touch of the human operator. In time, production demands grew. With the advent of the Industrial Revolution, more efficient machines and cutting materials were introduced into the workplace. The development of heat-resistant cutting tools...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... consistency and repeatability improvement: The die casting process is very dynamic. More than 20 factors will affect the process simultaneously. For a human to monitor and control all of these factors is beyond the normal operator's capability. Computer monitoring and control systems can monitor more than 20...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... increased productivity), extended machine life, and lower operating costs. For example, because corrosion can lead to unexpected failures that can be costly in terms of repair expenses, environmental damage, and potential harm to humans, CM is indispensable in avoiding these consequences. Generally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... colored reconstruction of a pit hole point cloud Other Visual Methods Automated Optical Inspection Systems Visual inspection involves human vision alone or combines various optical aids. Machine vision replaces human vision in some industries where high-volume production of high-quality parts...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
...: Because beryllium is expensive, near-net shape blanks should be used whenever possible to reduce material waste and subsequent recovery costs The dust and chips generated in machining are toxic to humans and can cause beryllium disease; therefore, a tested exhaust system and an approved monitoring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... semiconstrained knee replacement constrained knee replacement dental implants temporomandibular joints hip-wear simulation standards knee-wear simulation standards spinal disc-wear simulation standards biotribology THE HUMAN PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEM is unlike common mechanical engineering systems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005858
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... an overall balance. Under a storm cloud, the electric field can reach 10 kV/m. Human bodies, in the absence of any external electric field, create microcurrents caused by chemical reactions corresponding to the normal body functions. Some signals relayed by our nervous system take the form...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... automatically by the graphics system. This information is output from the system in a format that requires no human intervention before being input to a computer for analysis. Should the analysis indicate that the geometry requires modification, this is done rapidly at the cathode ray tube (CRT) terminal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... quantitatively or qualitative characterizes the effects the environmental burdens identified in the inventory stage have on local and global environments. Specifically, the magnitude of the effects on ecological and human health and on resource reserves are determined. Impact analysis is, at this time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... from which they are constructed cannot “fail” in the same sense as humans. They respond to their environments in ways which designers/engineers/scientists should understand and anticipate. So, the failure presented for analysis is really a failure to meet expectations. Whose expectations? Understanding...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (RCA) techniques are effective in exploring some of the other contributors to failures, such as the human and latent root causes. Properly performed, failure analysis and RCA are critical steps in the overall problem-solving process and are key ingredients for correcting and preventing failures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... capabilities. The modern quantitative image analysis systems driven by personal computers can handle complex images quickly and accurately, with resolutions comparable to those of the human eye. The most economical image systems convert an analog camera signal to a digital signal through a hardware processor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... the desired DWP. If the production floor conditions do not differ too much from the development environment, and the process and environmental variability is kept to a minimum, then the welding operation can be expected to satisfy the postprocess quality inspection procedures. Otherwise, human or computer...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (or grindability) of the material, compatibility (metallurgical, chemical, and human), and acceptability (fluid properties, reliability, and stability). Machinability The selection of the type of cutting fluid for use should be based on: Type of machining operation Material being machined Tool...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 7 to 14 points with the majority being about 10 to 11 points. Probably the optimum size is from 9 to 11 points—sizes smaller or larger can slow reading speed.” Anticipating Errors When humans are involved in the use of a product or system, there will be errors. Some errors are extremely...