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human-machine systems

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Machine vision, also referred to as computer vision or intelligent vision, is a means of simulating the image recognition and analysis capabilities of the human eye and brain system with digital techniques. The machine vision functionality is extremely useful in inspection, supervision...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... primary concern are machinability (or grindability) of the material, compatibility (metallurgical, chemical, and human), and acceptability (fluid properties, reliability, and stability). The way in which a cutting fluid is applied has considerable influence on tool life and on machining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... from which they are constructed cannot “fail” in the same sense as humans. They respond to their environments in ways which designers/engineers/scientists should understand and anticipate. So, the failure presented for analysis is really a failure to meet expectations. Whose expectations? Understanding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... emits light that creates the image that is viewed by the human eye or with a camera. Fluoroscopy is an example of real-time radiography. Another type of radiographic inspection is computed tomography, a computerized axial-tomography scanner provides a cross-sectional view of a test piece. Some of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... failure. Human error results obtained from a model are highly dependent on the input data or initial conditions on the system. Use of a model that has been validated is not a substitute for human knowledge. Incorrect use of the program leads to inaccurate results. The user must have a thorough...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... through digital communication to a human-machine interface such as a touchscreen or keypad. The PLCs are built by a wide range of manufacturers, and nearly all have similar capabilities. The selection criteria for a PLC manufacturer should include the consideration of spare parts; it is desirable to have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Abstract Independent verification of coating system performance can be based on laboratory testing and/or field exposure. Qualification testing is a critical component to coating system selection. This article focuses on performance evaluations that are used to prequalify coating systems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and industry are also used to nondestructively test industrial components, primarily carbon composite materials and light metal alloy structures ( Ref 7 ). Diagnostic medical scanners, however, are designed for a specific task. They provide high-quality images of the human body but are not suitable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... levels may vary considerably in NDE applications to established specification/process requirements. Performance variations are rarely integrated into overall system reliability estimates, and management is rarely accurate in recognizing and identifying superior performance by human operators...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the dosing to the shortest cycle times without further adjustments, thereby excluding human influence. It is only necessary to enter the melt temperature and dosing weight. The dosing furnace automatically synchronizes itself with the die casting machine, thus always resulting in an optimized dosing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... chlorides. Titanium is nontoxic and generally biologically compatible with human tissues and bones. The combination of high strength, stiffness, good toughness, low density, and good corrosion resistance provided by various titanium alloys at very low to elevated temperatures allows weight savings in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... using frequencies between 1.0 and 25 MHz, which are well above the range of human hearing, which is approximately 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Ultrasonic waves are mechanical vibrations, where the amplitudes of vibrations in metal parts being ultrasonically inspected impose stresses that are well below the elastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Measurements for Ultrasonic Sizing ” in this article. When using a standard reference or calibration block, the reasons for these differences often may be traced to differences in the equipment rather than in the personnel operating the equipment, although human factors cannot be completely disregarded, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... conventional air atomized, airless, and electrostatic spray; roller coating; dip coating; flow coating; curtain coating; tumble coating; electrocoating; and powder coating. Surface preparation methods and prepaint treatments for coating systems are also discussed. The article includes information on quality...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... involves human vision alone or combines various optical aids. Machine vision replaces human vision in some industries where high-volume production of high-quality parts is required. Advancements in digital technology and software have enabled industries such as electronics and pharmaceuticals to turn to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... testing at the in vitro level, followed by in vivo animal and then finally human levels through clinical trials. Given the broad range of materials and applications, factors guiding the biocompatibility of a medical device center on: Type of patient tissue expected to be in contact with the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... synergy between the elements of the materials selection process and presents a general comparison of material properties. Finally, the article provides a short note on computer aided materials selection systems, which help in proper archiving of materials selection decisions for future reference...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... presents a health hazard (toxicity), it should not be used to conduct very soft water for drinking, nor should it come into contact with foods. Inhalation of lead dust and fumes should be avoided, and paints containing lead should be removed from homes/structures to avoid ingestion by humans, particularly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005957
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... produce atmospheres by the catalyzed reforming of fuel gases with a small amount of air. Endothermic generators consist of a machine-premix system and an externally heated, catalyst-filled retort ( Ref 11 ). With electric process heating (electrotechnologies), electric currents or electromagnetic fields...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... is liquid metal injection, which is known as a shot. The injection phase has the most influence on casting quality once the die and machine are fixed. Therefore, it is very important to have a consistent and repeatable shot control system. Automation can reduce human error and process variability...