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human health

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005858
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
...Abstract Abstract This article provides an overview of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and discusses their direct and indirect effects on human health. It provides a detailed description of the exposure levels of EMFs in residential and work environments. The article examines the international...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
...Abstract Abstract Metal contamination of the environment reflects both natural sources and industrial activity, affecting human health. This article begins with a discussion on the level of metal exposure resulting in toxicological effects, the factors influencing toxicity of metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... to asphalt in animals and humans. Their conclusions, in brief, are as follows: While the aforementioned NIOSH data indicate that asphaltic materials are potentially dangerous, it does not establish that there is a direct correlation between exposure to asphaltic materials and human health hazards...
Book Chapter

By Bo Hu
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... of the most common and intractable public health problems in the world. It is a condition in which the hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations of blood are below recommended thresholds as a result of a deficiency of one or more essential nutrients. More than two billion people in the world today are estimated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
.... Worker Health Hazards Workers engaged in industrial painting tasks can be exposed to numerous chemicals, some of which may be hazardous to human health. Health effects from long-term exposure can include damage to the skin or internal organs (e.g., brain, lungs, and kidneys) as well as various types...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... to demonstrate the hazard potential (hazard identification) of the leachables and for use in conducting human health risk assessments of the leachables. If extracts of the device are prepared, the extraction vehicle and conditions of extraction used shall be appropriate to the nature and use of the final product...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... quantitatively or qualitative characterizes the effects the environmental burdens identified in the inventory stage have on local and global environments. Specifically, the magnitude of the effects on ecological and human health and on resource reserves are determined. Impact analysis is, at this time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., lubricant oil analysis, acoustic emission testing, temperature monitoring, motor current signature analysis, and ultrasound emission. The article describes the evolution of condition-based maintenance in CM. It also describes the basics of integrated vehicle health management, a capability that enables...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... is easily extracted from concentrated ore sources, is what makes it so inexpensive. In addition, the human body contains approximately 4.5 g of iron. The average adult human requires 10 to 20 mg of dietary iron each day to maintain good health. This human requirement, coupled with the vast abundance of iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
...Abstract Abstract Any threat to personal safety should be regarded as a hazard and treated as such. This article discusses threats from several sources, such as kinematic/mechanical hazards, electrical hazards, energy hazards, human factors/ergonomic hazards, and environmental hazards...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
...Abstract Abstract The central approach of human factors engineering is the systemic application of relevant information about human characteristics and behavior to the design of human-made objects, facilities, and environments that people use. This article focuses on the elements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
...Abstract Abstract The hazards associated with thermal spray deposition processes include ultraviolet and infrared radiation; acoustical noise; and by-product production in the forms of nitrous oxides, ozone, fumes, and dust. The most important consideration in health and safety is to use...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... animal and then finally human levels through clinical trials. Given the broad range of materials and applications, factors guiding the biocompatibility of a medical device center on: Type of patient tissue expected to be in contact with the device Detailed characterization (physical, chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... capabilities and limitations and how these affect our interaction with products, processes, and environments. The general objective of human factors is to maximize human and machine efficiency, health, safety, comfort, and quality of life ( Ref 7 , 8 ). The field of human factors helps engineers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., and standards that are intended to protect human health and the environment. A basic understanding of these requirements will assist those who need to reduce or eliminate the environmental impact of their operations in a cost-effective manner. History of the Environmental Movement Winston Churchill wrote...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of Inspector The human eye can be thought of as a highly advanced sensing instrument and the brain as the processor of the information acquired. The ability of the human eye to function effectively depends primarily on the inspector’s state of health (which includes physiological and psychological state...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... characterized as to their effects on local and global environments. More specifically, the magnitude of the effects on ecological and human health and on resource reserves are determined. Life-cycle impact assessment is at this time still in an early phase of development. Although some impact assessment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... diseases ( Ref 9 ). Figure 1 illustrates a range of human health problems that are related to the presence of ROS. This is why understanding the origin of the mechanism of these reactive species is a subject of great interest for the medical community. Fig. 1 Schematic of the effects of oxidative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Clinical trials on human subjects can begin only after a ceramic has successfully passed the necessary in vitro tests and in vivo animal studies and Health Authority or Ethics Committee approval has been granted in the country performing the particular clinical trial. Clinical trials involve testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... compounds are “relatively nontoxic and beneficial for human health.” Another study ( Ref 26 ), looking at laboratory studies of DNA damage due to trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds, determined that Cr 3+ was cytotoxic while Cr 6+ was genotoxic. The authors further reported that Cr 6...