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human factors

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and product manufacture, use, recycling (including design for recycling), and disposal. The other major factors considered include evaluation of the current state of the art for a given design, designing to codes and standards, and human factors/ergonomics. design factors design for quality...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... material, compatibility (metallurgical, chemical, and human), and acceptability (fluid properties, reliability, and stability). The article also describes various application methods of cutting fluids and precautions that should be observed by the operator. cutting fluid selection cutting oils...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... nature of these metal surfaces and their propensity for corrosion reactions when combined with similar or different alloys in complex restrictive environments within the human body, and under loading conditions. The article describes factors that influence mechanically assisted crevice corrosion. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Machine vision, also referred to as computer vision or intelligent vision, is a means of simulating the image recognition and analysis capabilities of the human eye and brain system with digital techniques. The machine vision functionality is extremely useful in inspection, supervision...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., their interpretation, and validity depend on a number of factors that are not easily selected and controlled. In the human body, the released ions may be quickly transported away from the implant, or they may concentrate in the vicinity, often because of the formation of an epithelium capsule. In a test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Ultrasonic cleaning involves the use of high-frequency sound waves that is above the upper range of human heating, or about 18 kHz, to remove a variety of contaminants from parts immersed in aqueous media. This article describes the process, design considerations and the equipment in...
Book Chapter

By Matthew Donachie
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Biomaterials are the man-made metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials used for intracorporeal applications in the human body. This article primarily focuses on metallic materials. It provides information on basic metallurgy, biocompatibility, chemistry, and the orthopedic and dental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract Ceramics are used widely in a number of different clinical applications in the human body. This article provides a brief history of the bioceramics field and information on the classification of the different types of bioceramics. These include bioinert ceramics, bioactive ceramics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... all be determined through the use of one or more NDE methods. The damage characterization gives insight into the factors that allowed for the damage to occur, whether they are design, material process, in-service condition or human factor related. For larger components, penetrant testing (PT) and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Painting is a generic term for the application of a thin organic coating to the surface of a material for decorative, protective, or functional purposes. This article provides a detailed account of the types and selection factors of paints and the various application methods, including...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... damaged by heat or corrosion—is the most obvious. However, there are always other levels of failures that allow the physical event to happen. For example, even a simple failure whose direct physical cause was an improper hardness value has human factors that allowed the improperly hardened component to be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... naked-eye VI has certain physical capabilities and limitations; discontinuities smaller than a specific order of magnitude cannot be seen (the threshold is different for each person). Indications of a size below the resolution limit of the human eye are revealed using special chemicals and ultraviolet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... from which they are constructed cannot “fail” in the same sense as humans. They respond to their environments in ways which designers/engineers/scientists should understand and anticipate. So, the failure presented for analysis is really a failure to meet expectations. Whose expectations? Understanding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... materials, mechanical, chemical, or structural engineering. The issues often extend to other engineering disciplines as well as statistics, human factors, and other technical areas specific to the particular accident at issue. The reconstructionist should have a broad range of scientific and engineering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... in the industrial marketplace, this does not mean that all of them are candidates for medical device manufacture. Not only must a material be fit for purpose physically and mechanically, but when it comes to medical devices that come into intimate contact with the human body, additional factors (such...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Film radiography requires the development of the exposed film so that the latent image becomes visible for viewing. It describes the general characteristics of film, including speed, gradient, and graininess, and the factors affecting film selection and exposure time. The article...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Typical directions and field of view with rigid borescopes Visible light, which can be detected by the human eye and with optical sensors, has some advantages over inspection methods based on nuclear, microwave, and ultrasound radiation. For example, one of the advantages of visible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... cooling or pressurization. Like condensation, superelasticity and shape memory are one and the same, but because the human body is a constant-temperature environment relatively intolerant to temperature changes, medical device designers are generally more interested in superelastic recovery than thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... radiation path maximizes the radiation-discontinuity interaction. In general, features that exhibit 1% or more difference in absorption compared to the surrounding material can be detected. X-rays and γ-rays are not perceptible to the human senses, and the information in the radiation is converted into...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... using the in cellulo approach at synchrotron and XFEL beamlines, including a natural insecticidal toxin Cry3A ( Ref 82 ), the alcohol oxidase from yeast, and the human PAK4 in complex with Inka1, a potent endogenous kinase inhibitor ( Ref 83 – 85 ). Synchrotron high-resolution powder diffraction...