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hot-wound springs

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Book Chapter

By Loren Godfrey
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... or cadmium to protect them from corrosion and abrasion. Although some hot-wound springs are made of steels that are also used for cold-wound springs, hot-wound springs are usually much larger, which results in significant metallurgical differences. All spring design is based on Hooke’s law; charts...
Image
Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 18 Hardness distribution for steels for hot-wound helical springs. Alloy steels were oil quenched from 845 °C (1550 °F); 1095 was oil quenched from 885 °C (1625 °F). Data were obtained from hot-rolled, heat-treated laboratory test coupons, 305 mm (12 in.) long. Specimens were sectioned More
Image
Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 19 Effect of peening on the probability of fatigue failure of hot-wound steel springs. Top: 95% probability of failure. Middle: 50% probability of failure. Bottom: 5% probability of failure. Springs were made from 16 to 27 mm ( 5 8 to 1 1 16 in.) diam 8650 and 8660 hot More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005138
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... to wire diameter) ranging from 3 to 18. The length of wire fed is controlled by the feed rolls. A coiler equipped with a variety of attachments and cams or servo motors can produce almost any type of spring, including tight-wound extension springs, common compression springs with either open ends...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... When the required number of layers is applied, the wound form is cured and the mandrel can be removed or left as part of the structure. High-speed, precise lay-down of continuous reinforcement in predescribed patterns is the basis of filament-winding. The filament-winding machine ( Fig. 1...
Book Chapter

By Mark Hayes
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...-alloy steels such as AISI 4160, 6150H, and 8660H for hot-wound forms. For small springs, music wire (ASTM A 228) is the highest-quality carbon steel (with a surface quality almost comparable to that of valve spring wire). Hard-drawn wire (ASTM 227) is the least expensive and has the lowest surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... as Fig. 279 , but at higher magnification. SEM, 100× (J.H. Maker, Associated Spring, Barnes Group Inc.) Fig. 279 Fig. 280 Fig. 281, 282 Low-cycle fatigue fracture of AISI 1074 strip. Failure initiated at defects that were probably formed during hot rolling of the band. Binocular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is comprised of (a) aluminum and (b) magnesium. Scan was taken from the image in Fig. 2(b) Example 3: Preexisting Hot Mill Rolling Crack Figure 4 shows a surface flaw deep enough to cause a coil spring to fail early; this surface imperfection was inherited from the raw material ( Ref 5...
Book Chapter

By Allan B. Dove
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... coatings can be applied to wire by various methods, including hot dip processes, electrolytic process, and metal cladding by rolling metallic strip over the wire. These wires are normally grouped into broad usage categories. These categories, as well as some items in each category, are described...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... colored, patinated with ferric nitrite, sulfurated potash, ammonium chloride, or sodium thiosulfate, to further extend the variety of available finishes. The majority of its alloys also are highly workable hot or cold, making them readily commercially available in various wrought forms: forgings, bar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., hot-melt. See hot-melt adhesive. abhesive. A material that resists adhesion. A to a coating or an encapsulating material. adhesive, hot-setting. See hot-setting adhesive. lm or coating applied to surfaces to prevent adhesive, intermediate temperature setting. sticking, heat sealing, and so...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... to produce wrought copper and copper alloys in the form of sheet and strip products, tubular products, and wire and cable. Common processes include melting, casting, hot and cold rolling, milling or scalping, annealing, cleaning, slitting, cutting, and leveling. In addition, the article discusses stress...
Book

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.9781627081955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (a) positioned in line to form a rectangular cross section, and (b) offset to form a square section Spring Coiling Small quantities of springs may be coiled in a lathe. The arbor around which the spring is wound is held in the chuck, and two wooden friction blocks are mounted on the cross slide...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... a need for materials with improved structural properties. In response, fiber-reinforced composites were developed, and by the end of the war fiberglass-reinforced plastics had been used successfully in filament-wound rocket motors and in various other structural applications. These materials were put...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Rinse in hot water. Relieve hydrogen embrittlement in boiling water 1 2 h. The spring broke with a shatter fracture typical of that caused by hydrogen embrittlement. The corrective action was to bake the spring at 190 °C (375 °F) for 5 h. For additional information...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., such as retaining rings, latches, slotted springs, and studs, are designed to allow easy, quick removal and replacement and show little or no deterioration with repeated use. Mechanical Fasteners for Composites Mechanical fasteners for composites are frequently used in combination with adhesive bonding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... fasteners, many of which are proprietary, such as retaining rings, latches, slotted springs, and studs, are designed to allow easy, quick removal and replacement and show little or no deterioration with repeated use. Mechanical fasteners for composites are frequently used in combination with adhesive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... embrittlement impact fracture inclusions intergranular fracture leaf springs rotating bending fatigue transgranular cleavage Fig. 319 Fracture due to corrosion fatigue of a 115-mm (4.5-in.) diam API 5A, grade E, seamless drill pipe. The fine-grained 0.4C-Mn alloy steel (∼AISI 1340) was used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., Ti Al, Ti Retards formation of hexagonal η (Ni 3 Ti) Al, Zr … Raises solvus temperature of γ′ … Co Hardening precipitates and/or intermetallics Al, Ti, Nb Al, Ti, Nb Forms γ″ (Ni 3 Nb) … Nb Oxidation resistance Cr Al, Cr Improves hot corrosion resistance La, Y La, Th...