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hot open-die forging

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... some common workability tests and illustrates their application in practical forging situations. Workability tests for open-die forging of cast structures, hot and cold open-die forging of recrystallized structures, fracture-controlled defect formation, establishing effects of process variables...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Forging machines use a wide variety of hammers, presses, and dies to produce products with the desired shape, size, and geometry. This article discusses the major types of hammers (gravity-drop, power-drop, high speed, and open-die forging), and presses (mechanical, hydraulic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... is presented in the article “Dies and Die Materials for Hot Forging” in this Volume. Fig. 1 Typical dies and punches used in open-die forging. (a) Die mounted with dovetail and key. (b) Flange-mounted die. (c) Swages for producing smooth round and hexagonal bars. (d) V-die. (e) Combination die (bar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... allowance material control mechanical properties open die forgings quality assurance tolerances FORGING is the process of working hot metal between dies, usually under successive blows and sometimes by continuous squeezing. Closed-die forgings, hot upset parts, and extrusions are shaped within...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... for the forging of aluminum alloys Forging process/equipment Die temperature °C °F Open-die forging Ring rolling 95–205 200–400 Mandrel forging 95–205 200–400 Closed-die forging Hammers 95–150 200–300 Upsetters 150–260 300–500 Mechanical presses 150–260 300–500...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and compositions; the most difficult alloys to forge are those with the greatest strength at elevated temperatures. Forging Methods Open-die, closed-die, upset, and roll forging and ring rolling are among the methods used to forge stainless steel. As in the forging of other metals, two of these methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... be finish forged at subtransus temperatures. (b) These are recommended metal temperature ranges for conventional α-β, or β forging processes for alloys for which the latter techniques are reported to have been employed. The lower limit of the forging temperature range is established for open-die forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... commonly forged using homogenized and hot extruded billets. Forging Equipment Machines Hydraulic presses or slow-action mechanical presses are the most commonly used machines for the open-die and closed-die forging of magnesium alloys. As mentioned previously, the flow behavior (e.g., resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... forging, are discussed in the articles in the Section “Forging Processes” in this Volume. Open Dies Most open-die forgings are produced in a pair of flat dies—one attached to the hammer or to the press ram and the other to the anvil. Swage (semicircular) dies and V-dies are also commonly used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...Abstract Abstract This article examines aluminum forging processes, including open-die, closed-die, upset, roll, orbital, spin, and mandrel forging, and compares and contrasts their capabilities and the associated design requirements for forged parts. It discusses the effect of key process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... precisely for this kind of forging. Fig. 1 Upset forging process using split dies. 1, stationary die; 2, moving die; 3, upsetting punch. (a) Inserting bar in open dies. (b) Closed dies gripping bar. (c) Upset forging. (d) Upsetting punch withdrawn. (e) Ejection of the forging Hot upset forging...
Book Chapter

By H.W. Sizek
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003984
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... or a cold-working operation. Primary metals producers use hot-work radial forging to produce billet or bar. Starting stock can be ingots or cogs from ingots that have been forged to an intermediate size with an open-die forging operation. (See the article “Practical Aspects of Converting Ingot to Billet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... are the same as those used in the forging of metals in open or closed dies. See the articles “Closed-Die Forging in Hammers and Presses” and “Hot Upset Forging,” as well as the articles on the forging of specific metals, in this Volume. Capabilities The roll forging process is capable of producing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.9781627081856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003985
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., open-die arrangements make it difficult to deploy inert or protective environments, and they restrict the ability to incorporate higher die temperatures. Hot-die forging requires that the die temperature be maintained consistently within the die and from part to part. Induction, infrared...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of methods, and two or more of these methods are often used in sequence. Forged superalloy components are produced by: Die forging (open-die or closed-die) Upsetting Extrusion forging Roll forging Swaging (or versions using proprietary rotary forging machines) Ring rolling Which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...) in closed-die forging. (a) Upsetting. (b) Filling. (c) End A typical load-versus-stroke curve for a closed-die forging is shown in Fig. 8 . Loads are relatively low until the more difficult details are partly filled and the metal reaches the flash opening ( Fig. 7 ). This stage corresponds to point...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... quantity shafts and seamless rings are made by open-die forging. Seamless rings and cases are also produced by ring rolling. Some nickel-base alloys are also produced into mill products, such as plates, sheets, and rods, that are further processed into components by fabrication. Heating for Forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... An economical technique to convert a cast structure to a wrought structure is through the use of open-die forging and furnace treatments, collectively known as cogging. Traditionally, the forging elements of cogging have been carried out by using a two-die forge, but cogging can also include work done...