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hot forging

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article addresses dies and die materials used for hot forging in vertical presses, hammers, and horizontal forging machines (upsetters). It reviews the properties of die materials for hot forging, including good hardenability, resistance to wear, plastic deformation, thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003986
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... factors that impact the precision forging process. It provides information on the achievable tolerances and presents examples of precision forging. A discussion on forging of bevel gears/spiral bevel gears is also presented. axle shafts bevel gears precision flashless forging precision hot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... polymerbased lubricants and molybdenum disulfide for warm application; graphite suspensions in oil or water for hot forging steels; and glass films for titanium and superalloys hot forgings. The article describes the applications of lubricants in warm extrusion and forging, hot forging of steel, hot forging of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article discusses the operation of upset forging machines and selection of the machine size. It describes several types of upsetter heading tools and their materials. The article reviews the cold shearing and hot shearing methods for preparing blanks for hot upset forging. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003985
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Hot-die forging and isothermal forging are unique forging methods developed to forge materials that are difficult or impossible to forge by conventional means. This article presents a comparative study on hot-die forging and isothermal forging. It discusses forging parameters, process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... gamma aluminides with particular reference to production scaleable techniques, including vacuum arc and cold-hearth melting, isothermal forging, conventional hot forging, and extrusion. The selection and design of manufacturing methods, in the context of processing-cost trade-offs for gamma titanium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... article discusses the effect of forging on final component properties and presents special considerations for the design of hot upset forgings. alloy steel carbon steel forgeability forging forging die design heat treatment hot upset forgings machining  mechanical properties steel forgings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...) process sequence: primary materials processing, hot forging and cold forming, and product assembly. The article discusses the material fracture and dies stress analysis and presents the optimization techniques used in 2-D and 3-D preform die design. bulk forming cold forming finite element method...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... in hot headers. Tolerances on parts produced by single-stroke headers need to be greater than on parts given two or more blows. Rivets, often formed in single-stroke machines, have tolerances of ±0.38 mm (0.015 in.), except where otherwise specified. Shanks for rolled threads often are allowed only...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Forging is the process of working hot metal between dies, usually under successive blows and sometimes by continuous squeezing. This article describes the material selection criteria, quality assurance tests for forged components, and the dimensional tolerances of closed-die steel...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-type, and multiple-ram). It further discusses the technologies used in the design of dies, terminology, and materials selection for dies for the most common hot-forging processes, particularly those using vertical presses, hammers, and horizontal forging machines. A brief section is included on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Recommendations on the selection of the materials for hot forging, hot extrusion, cold heading, and cold extrusion are presented. The article discusses the methods of characterizing abrasive wear and factors affecting abrasive wear. It discusses various die coatings and surface treatments used to extend the lives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... workability tests and illustrates their application in practical forging situations. Workability tests for open-die forging of cast structures, hot and cold open-die forging of recrystallized structures, fracture-controlled defect formation, establishing effects of process variables and secondary tensile...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003990
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and rotational motion, while lower die rotates. (b) Upper die has translational, rotational, and orbital (rocking) motion; lower die is stationary. (c) Upper die has orbital (rocking) motion only; lower die has translational motion. Abstract Radial forging is a hot- or cold-forming process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... alloy forgings. cobalt-base alloys forging forging equipment grain refinement heat treatment heat-resistant alloys hot deformation iron-nickel superalloys melting microstructure nickel-base alloys powder alloys precipitation-strengthened superalloys solid-solution-strengthened...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... process. The indirect rapid tooling technologies include 3D Keltool process, hot isostatic pressing, rapid solidification process tooling, precision spray forming, and radially constricted consolidation process. 3D Keltool process direct rapid tooling forging dies hot isostatic pressing indirect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003997
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... medium severity. If the part is complicated (for example, with deep, thin ribs), the capacity must be increased. Speed of the press is not critical in forging copper alloys, but minimum duration of contact between the hot forging and the die is desirable to increase die life. Detailed information on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... amount of ferrite present can be accomplished with forging temperature restrictions. Table 1 Typical compositions and forging temperature ranges of high-temperature alloys Alloy Typical composition, % Temperature C Cr Ni Mo Co Other °C °F More difficult to hot work...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... occur when the hot-working temperature is relatively high or above a solvus temperature. Deformation heating that results from deformation strain can cause grain growth during and directly after forging operations. Deformation processing can affect precipitation of secondary phases. Deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... accomplished below the β t of the alloy for the purposes of desired mechanical property development. This forging method is also referred to as α-β forging, B, β forging processes in which some or all of the forging is conducted above the β t of the alloy to improve hot workability or to obtain desired...