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hot extrusion forgings

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... as related topics; including stress-induced fatigue failure, tolerances, machining allowances; and the fundamentals of hammer and press forgings, hot upset forgings, and hot extrusion forgings. closed-die forgings design stress calculations hot extrusion forgings hot upset forgings...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... mechanical properties quality assurance tests tolerance wrought materials FORGING is the process of working hot metal between dies, usually under successive blows and sometimes by continuous squeezing. Closed-die forgings, hot upset parts, and extrusions are shaped within a cavity formed by the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... good corrosion resistance. In forgings, 7033 can be successfully hot and cold forged and still retain fine grains and excellent microstructures. Alloy 7449 is an alloy intended for aerospace applications, in particular, advanced wing structures. While sheet, plate, and extrusions will be the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Hot extrusion is a process in which wrought parts are formed by forcing a heated billet through a shaped die opening. This article discusses nonlubricated and lubricated hot extrusion. The two nonlubricated hot extrusion methods are forward or direct extrusion and backward or indirect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003985
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... techniques due to extensive cracking along prior particle boundaries. Powder was consolidated into useful materials by hot isostatic pressing, extrusion followed by forging, and other methods. The first wide-scale production application utilizing isothermal forging was a process patented by Pratt &amp...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... film thickness decreasing from front end to back end of extrusion. Source: Ref 76 . Fig. 5 Schematic illustration of the combined effects of deformation speed (contact time) and lubrication on friction and die pressure in hot forging. Source: Ref 5 Fig. 2 Pretreatment, coating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Abstract This article discusses two basic forms of extrusion: cold and hot. It provides information on three types of extrusion processes, namely, direct extrusion, reverse extrusion, and hydrostatic extrusion. The article also discusses the mechanics, analysis, tooling and die design of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003986
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... factors that impact the precision forging process. It provides information on the achievable tolerances and presents examples of precision forging. A discussion on forging of bevel gears/spiral bevel gears is also presented. axle shafts bevel gears precision flashless forging precision hot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... Abstract The most popular metal hot working processes for which induction heating is applied are forging, forming, extrusion, and rolling. This article focuses on estimation techniques to determine basic induction heating process parameters, including coil power, length of heating line, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... extrusion aluminum alloy 6069 hot extruded cylinders mechanical properties physical properties tensile properties Alloy 6069 ( Table 1 ) was introduced by Northwest Aluminum Co. (Direct Forge 6069) for extruded products requiring combinations of high strength, machinability, and secondary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... extrusion quality” or “cold working quality.” To ensure surface quality of steel hot-scarfing during semifinshed state (blooms) and eddy-current testing in the finished state (bars) is sometimes required. Steel bars are available as normal hot rolled, precision hot rolled and cold finished. Normal hot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... The first direction is ECAE with low number of passes, presumably one or two. One of the effective applications is the breakdown of cast structures. This processing may be applied to different alloys at temperatures of hot deformation. The advantages offered by the technology include the reduction of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... includes containerization of gas-atomized powder, hot compaction by forging to approximately 94% of theoretical density, and extrusion to full density at a reduction ratio of 5–7 to 1. After can removal and inspection, the extruded bar is sectioned into billets for forging. Extrusion is relied on to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... hydrostatic extrusion of structural alloys, composites, brittle materials, and intermetallics or intermetallic compounds, with examples. It concludes with a discussion on the attempts made to extend the hydrostatic extrusion to higher temperatures. brittle materials composites hot hydrostatic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... should have sufficient strength and toughness to prevent splitting and failure of the working tools. Shrink rings should be fabricated from hot work die steels such as H11 and H13 heat treated to 46 to 48 HRC. Outer housings are often made of H13 die steel AISI 4340 alloy steel. Tolerance on slug...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... (hot shortness). Note: This optimal temperature only refers to extrusion speed and not metallurgical development of properties. Adapted from Ref 1 Fig. 5 Extrusion rate versus flow stress for various aluminum alloys. Adapted from Ref 16 Fig. 6 Modified metal flow patterns for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Fig. 5 Basic type of upsetter heading tools and dies showing the extent to which stock is supported Fig. 2 Principal components of a typical machine for hot upset forging with a vertical four-station die Fig. 1 Upset forging process using split dies. 1, stationary die; 2, moving...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-type, and multiple-ram). It further discusses the technologies used in the design of dies, terminology, and materials selection for dies for the most common hot-forging processes, particularly those using vertical presses, hammers, and horizontal forging machines. A brief section is included on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article addresses dies and die materials used for hot forging in vertical presses, hammers, and horizontal forging machines (upsetters). It reviews the properties of die materials for hot forging, including good hardenability, resistance to wear, plastic deformation, thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... specialty materials such as tungsten carbide, beryllium, and ceramics. Hot pressing is also used as a consolidation process to produce billets for further processing by conventional forging or extrusion of materials such as high-strength powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys, tool steels, and superalloys...