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hot bending

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... A bending or hot coining operation is sometimes used to give the final shape or dimensions to a forged part after it has passed through the finisher impression and the trimming die. A blocker may be a streamlined model of the finisher, used to provide a smooth transition from partially finished to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the concepts involved in heat-transfer modeling, thermomechanical modeling, and microsegregation modeling of hot tearing. It discusses the modeling of solidification defects, namely, inclusion entrapment, segregation, shrinkage cavities, gas porosity, mold-wall...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article discusses the operation of upset forging machines and selection of the machine size. It describes several types of upsetter heading tools and their materials. The article reviews the cold shearing and hot shearing methods for preparing blanks for hot upset forging. It...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article summarizes some of the issues and approaches in performing computational analyses of mechanical behavior, distortion, and hot tearing during solidification. It presents the governing equations and describes the methods used to solve them. The article reviews the finite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... galvanizing equipment and galvanizing post treatments. alloying elements batch galvanizing equipment batch hot dip galvanized coatings cleaning coating thickness conventional batch galvanizing galvanizing galvanizing post treatment iron mechanical properties metallurgical characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article discusses the processes involved in continuous hotdip coating of steel sheets, namely, hot and cold line processing, surface preparation, and post treatment. It outlines the properties and microstructures of metals and their alloys used in this process. The coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Hot extrusion is a process in which wrought parts are formed by forcing a heated billet through a shaped die opening. This article discusses nonlubricated and lubricated hot extrusion. The two nonlubricated hot extrusion methods are forward or direct extrusion and backward or indirect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article discusses two types of hot-tension tests, namely, the Gleeble test and conventional isothermal hot-tension test, as well as their equipment. It summarizes the data for hot ductility, strength, and hot-tension for commercial alloys. The article presents isothermal hot...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-carbon steel Water-soluble, vegetable-oil-base drawing oil Stainless steel and other high-alloy iron-base alloys Mineral-oil-base drawing oil Aluminum alloys and copper alloys Mineral oil Brass (severe bends) Soap solution Hot bending of carbon, alloy, and stainless steels Molybdenum...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-building equipment, railway equipment, and general machinery. These applications require only mild cold bending, mild hot forming, punching, and welding. Mild cold bending is bending in which a generous bend radius is used and in which the axis of the bend is at right angles to the direction of rolling...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-type, and multiple-ram). It further discusses the technologies used in the design of dies, terminology, and materials selection for dies for the most common hot-forging processes, particularly those using vertical presses, hammers, and horizontal forging machines. A brief section is included on...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of plastics, chemical treatment for adhesion, and tabulates the adhesive types for bonding plastics to plastics and plastics to nonplastics. The article briefly describes the welding processes of thermoplastics, including fusion welding (hot-tool, hot gas, extrusion, and focused infrared), friction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Recommendations on the selection of the materials for hot forging, hot extrusion, cold heading, and cold extrusion are presented. The article discusses the methods of characterizing abrasive wear and factors affecting abrasive wear. It discusses various die coatings and surface treatments used to extend the lives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... true strain of 0.5. For hot working temperatures, this uniform strain is frequently less than 0.1. Although tension tests are easily performed, necking makes control of strain rate difficult and leads to uncertainties about the value of strain at fracture because of the complex stresses that result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... processes. There is no basic reason why workability analysis is not used more for solving hot-working fracture problems. Hot working presents special issues for workability. For many metallurgical systems it is important to understand the temperature/strain-rate regimes that optimize workability. This can...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloys Hot-rolled low-carbon steel Fe-0.10 to 0.20C Unalloyed cast iron, 185 to 225 HB Fe-3C-1.6Si-0.7Mn Alloy cast iron, 200 to 250 HB Fe-3C-1.6Si-0.4Cr-0.4Mo Cast high-carbon steel, 185 to 225 HB Fe-0.75C Cast alloy steel, 200 to 235 HB Fe-0.45C-1.1Cr-0.4Mo 4140 alloy steel Fe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Brittle fracture of a modified SAE 1050 axle shaft due to single bending impact load. Steel nominal composition: 0.50% C, 0.95% Mn, 0.25% Si, 0.01% S, and 0.01% P. The hot-rolled and upset shaft had an induction-hardened martensitic case (60 HRC) and a pearlite-ferrite core (20 HRC). Failure occurred at...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000624
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... exhibits rather flat, elongated dimples. The region at left center in this view appears to have been stretched. 6500× Fig. 1201 Surface of a slow-bending fracture produced at −160 °C (−256 °F) in Fe-3.9Ni alloy deoxidized with aluminum and titanium, which was forged at 1260 °C (2300 °F), hot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... σ ys ) 2 Imperfections such as cold laps, hot tears, quench cracks, and tool marks can be severe enough to lead to fracture. Fatigue cracks and stress-corrosion cracks also can grow in ductile material without showing any gross deformation. Thus, various imperfections or stress raisers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...-access caps 2 and 4 were removed from hot engines after run-in. Fig. 361 : A reduced shank bearing cap bolt. Location of cracks and fracture on bolt shank was random. In this case, circumferential cracks were found adjacent to the threaded section. 1.5×. Fig. 362 : Fracture surface of a failed bolt...