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honeycomb sandwich defects

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and presents drawbacks and limitations of these techniques. Generic flaw types and flaw-producing mechanisms are listed in a table. The article discusses metal-to-metal defects, adherend defects, honeycomb sandwich defects, repair defects, and in-service defects. It reviews the methods applicable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract Honeycomb-cored sandwich panels increase part stiffness at a lower weight than monolithic composite materials. This article illustrates an area of a honeycomb-cored sandwich structure composite cross section that is viewed using transmitted polarized light. This area shows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... considerations for personnel, facilities, and equipment during maintenance. adhesive bonding commercial aircraft composite repair designing for repairability durability maintainability manufacturing defects monolithic structures nondestructive inspection sandwich structures stiffened-skin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... laminates ( Ref 10 ). Honeycomb sandwich structures have the potential to carry much more water weight than fibers and matrix. The empty space that makes honeycomb such an efficient structural element (by weight) also acts as a holding tank for water. Most honeycomb thickness ranges from 10 mm (0.4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... are usually thin, and most components are, in fact, sandwich structures with composite facesheets. Some sandwich panels consist of precured facesheets adhesively bonded to the aluminum honeycomb core. The “cocured” sandwich, in which the facesheet and the adhesive are cured simultaneously, is becoming common...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of two thin, high-strength facings bonded to a thick, lightweight core. Each component by itself is relatively weak and flexible, but when combined into a sandwich panel they produce a structure that is stiff, strong, and lightweight. A honeycomb sandwich panel, formed by adhesively bonding thin skins...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Strength of Honeycomb Core Materials Peel C 364 Edgewise Compressive Strength of Flat Sandwich Constructions Edgewise compression C 365 Flatwise Compressive Properties of Sandwich Cores Flatwise compression C 393 Flexural Properties of Sandwich Constructions Flexure C 394 Shear Fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... an adhesive bond failure between joined structures. They usually are observed with a face sheet disbonding from an underlying sandwich core material. Core Damage Core damage can occur with any type of core. Causes of core damage include handling damage in manufacturing, impact, improper vacuum bagging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... covered by this section. Cure process quality control following lay-up is covered in the article “Cure Monitoring and Control” in this Volume. Figure 2 is a cause-and-effect diagram for defects in composite lay-ups that are described in this article. Fig. 1 Sequence of tasks associated with lay...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., precured and integrated, or bonded. Sandwich construction with honeycomb or foam results in lightweight alternatives to discretely stiffened panels. As the part count is reduced, the complexity of the components is increased. The structural design may be as extensive as the aft fuselage of the V-22 Osprey...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... and torsional stiffness can be met more efficiently if the artificial constraint of right-angle stiffeners is removed. Sandwich Structures Sandwich structures provide high bending stiffness at low weight. Various core materials are used such as balsa wood, aluminum or Nomex honeycomb, or syntactic closed...
Book Chapter

By Greg Kress
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... Polymers are classified as being thermoplastic or thermoset. Other matrices : Metal, ceramic, carbon, glass Structural configurations: Solid laminate, sandwich panels, stiffened panels Core materials: Honeycomb, foam, wood, syntactic Processing options include: Manufacturing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... amplitude data from the interface between a laminate and honeycomb substructure. The line over the defect in the upper right of the C-scan image shows the location of the B-scan image, which is shown in the left inset. The top sets of lines in the B-scan image are the front surface-part reflection. Below...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... between a laminate and honeycomb substructure. The line over the defect in the upper right of the C-scan image shows the location of the B-scan image, which is shown in the left inset. The top sets of lines in the B-scan image are the front surface-part reflection. Below that are echoes from the internal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0007019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... with copper ( Ref 11 , 12 ). Liquid copper bonds well to tungsten and has good wetting. Therefore, any surface cracks or defects in the AM structure are less problematic, because they will be filled in by the matrix material. Figure 2(b) shows a microsection of a composite based on an AM tungsten honeycomb...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.9781627081900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... are likely to be blurred by thermal diffusion. Steady-state excitation is widely used for detection of trapped water in honeycomb sandwich structures found in aircraft control structures. Both heating and cooling excitation modes can be found in commercial aircraft inspection procedures. Detection is enabled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003481
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... chloride foam or Kevlar honeycomb. Advanced fabrication processes, such as resin transfer molding, resin film infusion, or autoclaving, are used in the construction of the hull and decks to produce composites that are defect-free, excellent dimensional tolerance, and a high fiber content for maximum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... for detecting corrosion under coatings are configured differently than for moisture detection within a nonconducting structure like a honeycomb panel or a sandwich panel. Many of the basic system tools remain unchanged, but sensor configurations, frequency ranges, and analysis techniques can differ dramatically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
.... In either case, the glue cannot stick, except at the small nodules of fractured laminating resin in between the bundles of fibers in the weave of the peel ply. This increment of strength is often sufficient to bond successfully honeycomb cores in sandwich construction. Providing that all the remainder...