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honeycomb core failure

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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 8 Honeycomb core failure as a result of adequate skin-to-core adhesion. Bright-field illumination, 10× objective More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 7 Micrograph of honeycomb core (cell wall) failure. Also shown is a small delaminated area in the carbon fiber plain weave composite near the edge of the fillet due to the stress on the core wall. The sample was mounted in Rhodamine-B-dyed epoxy casting resin. Slightly uncrossed polarized More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and flatwise tensile tests. The article concludes with a description on the reasons for core failure, which are analyzed after these tests. honeycomb core crush honeycomb core failure honeycomb core movement honeycomb-cored sandwich panels skin-to-core bond strength tensile test transmitted...
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 10 Failure of a honeycomb-cored sandwich structure composite with areas of poor fillet formation and inadequate bond strength between the prepreg and film adhesive. Bright-field illumination, 10× objective More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... to meet the tool side. The sloping portion of the core is called the ramp region, and the solid laminate where the tool and bag faces come together is called the edgeband. Fig. 1 Honeycomb sandwich construction Sandwich Panel Failure Modes Honeycomb panel failures can be divided...
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 5 Micrographs of an unprepared honeycomb sandwich composite structure after climbing drum peel testing showing the adhesive surface after failure and the separated honeycomb core. Dark-field illumination, 65 mm macrophotograph More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 6 (a) Micrograph of a honeycomb sandwich structure composite after climbing drum peel testing showing areas of the core remaining on the aramid fiber composite facesheet. The microcrack pattern of the composite facesheet was enhanced by the use of DYKEM Steel Red dye, which was applied More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... bondline and, in extreme cases where fast heat-up rates are used, actual delaminations within the composite laminate plies. If honeycomb is used in the structure, moisture can turn to steam resulting in node bond failures or blown core. Relatively thin composite laminates (3.17 mm, or 0.125 in., or less...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... that leads to adhesion failures is caused by improper cleaning of the honeycomb core prior to bonding. This condition results if glycol (which is often used to support the core when it is machined) is not completely removed prior to bonding. Incomplete removal of glycol will cause a weak bond to exist...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... and significantly degrades mechanical properties. Fluid also degrades the honeycomb cell wall, which increases the ease of water migration. Eventually, when a honeycomb cell is full of water, the expansion during freezing is strong enough to cause the skin to delaminate from the core. During repairs, water must...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... edge at the top of the photo. The wing spar is in the shape of a box spar with upper and lower carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy caps and shear webs made of Nomex honeycomb core and glass/epoxy skins. Fig. 8 Section of failed wing spar Test Procedures and Results Further examination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... can also be less expensive to build as well as easier to maintain than equivalent honeycomb designs. The same cannot be said for designs involving a combination of honeycomb sandwich cores, in which water collects, and ultrathin composite facesheets, through which it passes. The design of bonded...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002194
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... up of hard, abrasive nonmetallic fibers or particles in a soft metal matrix, they present unusual machining problems. Tool wear, for example, is much more severe than that encountered in machining the matrix metal alone. Honeycomb structures consist of a core formed into hexagonal-shaped cells...
Book Chapter

By Greg Kress
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... can reduce the effective laminate modulus and cause a redistribution of stress that eventually leads to fiber breakage and finally, laminate failure. Damage tolerance can be improved by using toughened resin systems that resist crack propagation. The use of honeycomb core in frequent-impact areas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... an adhesive bond failure between joined structures. They usually are observed with a face sheet disbonding from an underlying sandwich core material. Core Damage Core damage can occur with any type of core. Causes of core damage include handling damage in manufacturing, impact, improper vacuum bagging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Strength of Honeycomb Core Materials Peel C 364 Edgewise Compressive Strength of Flat Sandwich Constructions Edgewise compression C 365 Flatwise Compressive Properties of Sandwich Cores Flatwise compression C 393 Flexural Properties of Sandwich Constructions Flexure C 394 Shear Fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., structures have been developed whereby the composite layers are separated by a lightweight material, making a sandwich structure. Typical materials used for the sandwich materials are honeycomb core or foam materials. Honeycomb core materials are usually based on Nomex (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... temperature is usually −18 °C (0 °F) or lower. Fig. 4 Relationship of storage, mechanical, and handling lives of a prepreg. Prepreg and adhesives may be returned to storage one or more times provided their handling lives have not been exceeded. Honeycomb core is packaged and stored in a manner...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... an aramid or fiberglass paper honeycomb, aluminum honeycomb, foam, or balsa wood material. Sandwich structures composed of a solid laminate plus an equivalent core thickness will be seven times the stiffness and almost four times the strength of the monolithic skin alone. However, thin- skinned sandwich...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... are usually thin, and most components are, in fact, sandwich structures with composite facesheets. Some sandwich panels consist of precured facesheets adhesively bonded to the aluminum honeycomb core. The “cocured” sandwich, in which the facesheet and the adhesive are cured simultaneously, is becoming common...