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honeycomb core composites

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract Honeycomb-cored sandwich panels increase part stiffness at a lower weight than monolithic composite materials. This article illustrates an area of a honeycomb-cored sandwich structure composite cross section that is viewed using transmitted polarized light. This area shows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the analysis of various types of voids. It reviews techniques for analysis of voids at ply-drops, voids due to high fiber packing, and voids that occur in honeycomb core composites. The final section of the article discusses void documentation through the use of nondestructive inspection techniques and density...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... bondline and, in extreme cases where fast heat-up rates are used, actual delaminations within the composite laminate plies. If honeycomb is used in the structure, moisture can turn to steam resulting in node bond failures or blown core. Relatively thin composite laminates (3.17 mm, or 0.125 in., or less...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...Abstract Abstract A sandwich structure is comprised of layered composite materials formed by bonding two or more thin facings or facesheets to a relatively thick core material. This article describes the sandwich panel failure modes. It tabulates the nomenclature and definitions for loads...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... with the application of pressure. The mounted specimen can then be ground and polished as described in the article, “Rough Grinding and Polishing,” in this Volume. Preparation of other metallic honeycomb-cored composites will benefit from this technique as well as thin-walled ribbed composite structures. Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003375
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... • Corden J. , Honeycomb Structure , Composites , Vol 1 , Engineered Materials Handbook , ASM International , 1986 • Hexcel Cross-Core data sheet , Hexcel Composites • Kindinger J. , “HexWeb Honeycomb Attributes and Properties,” Hexcel Composites , 1999 • Kindinger...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...Abstract Abstract Honeycomb is a product consisting of very thin sheets attached to form connecting cells. This article briefly explains the construction, core characteristics, properties, and testing methods of the honeycomb structures. It discusses the special processes carried out...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002194
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
..., fiberglass, graphite, or aramid. Detailed information on the fabrication of honeycomb structures can be found in the article “Lightweight Structural Cores” in Composites , Volume 21 of the ASM Handbook. Fig. 2 Hexagonal cell honeycomb Fig. 3 Example of a bonded sandwich assembly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... and significantly degrades mechanical properties. Fluid also degrades the honeycomb cell wall, which increases the ease of water migration. Eventually, when a honeycomb cell is full of water, the expansion during freezing is strong enough to cause the skin to delaminate from the core. During repairs, water must...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... result in porosity or voids. Honeycomb core assemblies have been found with all types of foreign material. Metal-to-Metal Defects Voids A void is any area that should contain, but does not contain, adhesive. Voids are found in a variety of shapes and sizes and are usually at random locations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... can also be less expensive to build as well as easier to maintain than equivalent honeycomb designs. The same cannot be said for designs involving a combination of honeycomb sandwich cores, in which water collects, and ultrathin composite facesheets, through which it passes. The design of bonded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., including the center hinge fitting, front spar sections, and honeycomb core, were existing aluminum parts. The composite spoiler was completely interchangeable with the standard aluminum version. By July 1973, the Boeing Commercial Airplane Company had placed 111 composite spoilers in regular airline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., structures have been developed whereby the composite layers are separated by a lightweight material, making a sandwich structure. Typical materials used for the sandwich materials are honeycomb core or foam materials. Honeycomb core materials are usually based on Nomex (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... in military and commercial aviation applications. The three main configurations used in commercial aircraft composites are sandwich, stiffened-skin, and monolithic structures. Sandwich Structure Two forms of sandwich structures are found in aircraft applications: honeycomb panels and sandwich panels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... (e.g., metal, composite, or elastomeric surfaces). Cured laminates that have a textured surface (which comes from being cured against breather mats) are difficult to adequately prepare for bonding by sanding because the sandpaper tends to just hit the peaks. Cleaning of honeycomb core may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of inclusions, and in some cases detecting water trapped in honeycomb. Component Identification Ideally, fiber reinforced composite components should be fully identified before a repair is performed. Such details as material specifications, ply numbers and ply orientations, core ribbon direction, ply...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... are usually thin, and most components are, in fact, sandwich structures with composite facesheets. Some sandwich panels consist of precured facesheets adhesively bonded to the aluminum honeycomb core. The “cocured” sandwich, in which the facesheet and the adhesive are cured simultaneously, is becoming common...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003479
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... over at speeds up to 130 km/h (80 mph). Snowboards A composite snowboard is constructed by Hexcel Corporation. The board consists of a thermoplastic cap or top layer, a layer of glass, carbon, or hybrid prepreg, a polyurethane honeycomb core, another layer of glass, carbon or hybrid prepreg...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003366
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... (Boeing 8-222 specification). The honeycomb manufacturing process is shown in Fig. 2 . An aramid paper is used to manufacture untreated honeycomb. The honeycomb is coated with multiple layers of phenolic resin for densification of the honeycomb core. By using face sheets of phenolic composite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of the wing is at the bottom and the aft edge at the top of the photo. The wing spar is in the shape of a box spar with upper and lower carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy caps and shear webs made of Nomex honeycomb core and glass/epoxy skins. Fig. 8 Section of failed wing spar Test Procedures...