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homogeneous nucleation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... to occur, nuclei must form in the liquid. The article discusses the various types of nucleation: homogeneous nucleation, heterogeneous nucleation, and dynamic nucleation. It reviews the classification of eutectics based on their growth mechanism: cooperative growth and divorced growth. The article...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... , nucleation is limited by diffusional mobility. Fig. 9 Comparison between heterogeneous nucleation (A) and homogeneous nucleation (B) in terms of the relative transformation kinetics below the melting point. The reduced temperature T r = T / T f and time t ∝ l −1 . T g , glass transition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract Precipitation reactions occur in many different alloy systems when one phase transforms into a mixed-phase system as a result of cooling from high temperatures. This article discusses the homogenous and heterogeneous nucleation and growth of coherent and semicoherent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... s and y s define the unstable region. Δ G nuc ( x 0 ) is the nucleation free energy of the metastable homogeneous system of composition x 0 . Fig. 2 Variation Δ G of the free energy corresponding to the spontaneous unmixing of a homogeneous system of composition x 0 in two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... (grain boundaries) with adjacent crystals. This process of forming nuclei in the freezing melt and their subsequent growth is characterized as a nucleation and growth process. Fig. 13 Nucleation and growth during solidification. Source: Ref 2 Nucleation can occur by either homogeneous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
.... annealing castings deformation diffusion coefficient grain growth heat treatment heterogeneous nucleation homogeneous nucleation homogenization isothermal transformation nonferrous metals precipitation hardening recrystallization recrystallization temperature solid-state phase transformation...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Trans. B , Vol 16 , 1986 , p 359 – 366 Homogeneous Nucleation Heterogeneous Nucleation Shrinkage Feeding Gases in Metal Gas Evolution during Solidification Porosity Formation Shrinkage Porosity Gas Porosity Factors Affecting Porosity Formation Aluminum Copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... Source: Ref 6 Fig. 33 Schematic illustration showing dendrite tip undercooling Fig. 6 Schematic illustrations of homogeneous (a and b) and heterogeneous (c and d) nucleation. Figures on the left are for a temperature above the melting point. Figures on the right...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... . There are three ways in which a solid can form: homogeneous nucleation, heterogeneous nucleation, and epitaxial growth. Homogeneous nucleation occurs when there is no foreign body (mold wall, solid particle in the melt, etc.) on which to form the solid. Figure 2 shows the balance of the surface tension...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... force for homogeneous nucleation of graphite, a theory was developed and calculations were performed to explain the nucleation of graphite and the fading mechanism of these particles. The fading effect was explained by the homogenization of carbon and silicon in the melt through convection and diffusion...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... between erheating and maximum undercooling in flake graphite cast iron. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 6 Influence of undercooling on eutectic cell count in flake graphite cast iron. Source: Ref 8 Homogeneous nucleation is improbable in cast iron because typical undercoolings are much smaller...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... , 2009 , p 70 – 78 33. Goetz R.L. and Seetharaman V. , Static Recrystallization with Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation Using a Cellular Automata Model , Metall. Mater. Trans. A , Vol 29 , p 2307 – 2321 34. Rios P.R. , Pereira L.O. , Oliveira F.F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the types of nuclei available in the melt as resulting from homogeneous nucleation, heterogeneous nucleation, and dynamic nucleation ( Ref 1 ). Homogeneous Nucleation Heterogeneous Nucleation Dynamic Nucleation The thermal and compositional fields at the S/L interface determine the morphology...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... precipitation refers to the uniform appearance of second-phase particles throughout the grains of the matrix. General precipitation does not imply homogeneous nucleation, rather, the nonlocalized precipitation of the second phase. Discontinuous precipitation can occur at regions such as grain boundaries...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... with Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation Using Cellular Automata,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A , Vol 29 , 1998 , p 2307 28. Pezzee C.F. and Dunand D.C. , “The Impingement Effect of an Inert, Immobile Second Phase on the Recrystallization of a Matrix,” Acta Metall. Mater. , Vol 42...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... identical (<1% mismatch). This allows homogeneous nucleation of the precipitate with low surface energy and long-time stability at temperature, ensuring the potential usefulness of the alloys at elevated temperatures up to 0.85 T m (melting point) for extended periods of time. Tantalum, tungsten...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... likely by homogeneous nucleation—that are still coherent with the aluminum matrix, that is, have the same face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure as aluminum. However, as a result of the different atomic volume of most solute atoms, these clusters develop small strain fields that hinder dislocation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005435
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... with increasing driving force (a and b), leading to transformed crystal at critical driving force for nucleation in (c). Length scale in units of lattice dislocation Burgers vector, b. Source: Ref 38 Fig. 7 Normalized critical driving force for homogeneous coherent face-centered cubic → body-centered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... which are useful in determining the conditions for proper heat treatment (solid-state transformation) of metals and alloys. The influence of the mechanisms of phase nucleation and growth on the morphology, size, and distribution of grains and second phases is also described. bainite eutectic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... extensively to the interdendritic or intercellular regions under the conditions of rapid cooling. Also, the pickup of elements like oxygen by the molten weld pool leads to the entrapment of oxide inclusions in the solidified weld. These inclusions then serve as heterogeneous nucleation sites and can...