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high-velocity gas stream

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... include, but are not limited to: It is important that the gas volume measured by the instrument is representative of the desired sample, or that the relationship is understood. Sampling bias can be an advantage or disadvantage. The complexity of the sample must be considered. A complex gas stream...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... technique in which two mass analyzers are separated by a collision chamber, makes it possible to decipher structural information and trace analysis of complex mixtures. For more information on GC/MS, the interested reader is referred to the references herein. The vapor stream that exits a gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., Inc. Powder is usually introduced into the gas stream either just outside the torch or in the diverging exit region of the nozzle (anode). It is both heated and accelerated by the high-temperature, high-velocity plasma gas stream. Torch design and operating parameters are critical in determining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... is greatly increased by the diffusion of vapor and gas and by the relatively high flow rates. Vapors of coating material can be prepared within the fluidizing chamber by the reaction of particles in the bed with the gases, or they can be prepared and evaporated in a separate vessel. A schematic flow...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... systems and automation, with the objective of maintaining high quality and high productivity, is also provided. steel continuous casting horizontal continuous casting near-net shape casting casting steel tundish metallurgy pouring stream protection thin-wall tube-type molds solid molds plate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... electrical contactors for heating elements or high-low fire systems for combustion burners. Others are proportional, utilizing stoichiometric gas-air ratios for burners or variable current systems for heating elements. Each of these systems has the effect of delivering a certain amount of energy to achieve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract High-temperature corrosion can occur in numerous environments and is affected by various parameters such as temperature, alloy and protective coating compositions, stress, time, and gas composition. This article discusses the primary mechanisms of high-temperature corrosion, namely...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-suspension microammeter reading 0 to 50, and response time of the instruments one second. Leak-rate sensitivity is 10 −8 mL/s. A mass spectrometer basically is a device to sort charged particles. The sample gas enters the analyzer where its molecules are bombarded by a stream of electrons emitted by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... through the furnace wall. With lower velocities, the water-gas reaction will take place at lower temperatures and thus raise the concentration of carbon dioxide and decrease the concentration of water vapor. If the carbon potential of the atmosphere is high, carbon monoxide will decompose into carbon...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... reaction sintering and self-propagating, high-temperature synthesis. It also describes several pressure densification methods, including hot isostatic pressing, gas pressure sintering, molten particle deposition, and sol-gel processing. The article concludes with a section on grain growth that discusses...
Book Chapter

By P.S. Grant
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...: Continuous gas atomization of a melt stream using high-pressure, high-flow-rate nitrogen or argon to produce a spray of 10 to 500 μm diameter alloy droplets Subsequent droplet cooling at typically 10 2 to 10 4 K/s (180 to 18,000 °F/s) and acceleration to 50 to 100 m/s (160 to 300 ft/s) under the action...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... hydrocarbon feedstock at a high temperature. In the regeneration section, the air nozzles suffer erosion from catalyst particles in high-temperature steam, and here, cobalt alloys offer a longer service life than the stainless steels. In thermowells used to protect thermocouples from attack by process streams...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... used to melt base and filler metals together in the joint. For the cutting of metals, increased gas flows create a high-velocity plasma gas jet that is used to melt the metal and blow it away to form a kerf. The basic design and terminology for a plasma arc cutting torch are shown in Fig. 14...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... a small spot size to produce a high power density. This controlled power density melts the metal and, in the case of deep-penetration welds, vaporizes some of it. When solidification occurs, a fusion zone or weld joint results. The laser beam, which consists of a stream of photons, can be focused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... other casting defects arise due to problems specific to individual processes. Grain defects, such as unwanted grain boundaries, are important in directional solidification processes, such as the casting of single-crystal turbine blades, where high-temporature creep resistance is the most important...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... structural reliability. Once these issues are solved, the engineering ceramics market in the United States, which is currently estimated to be slightly over $500 million, could approach $1 billion within five years. The high-temperature properties of advanced ceramics make them attractive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... High pressures and temperatures are also encountered in some cases. Refining operations subject low-alloy steels to environments containing both hydrogen and hydrocarbons. Transmission and distribution of oil and gas expose pipelines and piping systems to environments containing varying amounts of many...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... industries such as building products, whitewares, and refractories as well as in high-technology industries such as electronics. The raw materials used as constituents in ceramics all have their primary origin in nature. Some raw materials are incorporated into ceramic products in their natural form, while...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... be present in metals as alloying or impurity elements. High-temperature combustion and inert gas fusion methods are typically used to analyze for dissolved gases (oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen) and, in some cases, carbon and sulfur in metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...; and as a carrier mixed gas for certain nitriding processes, including the Floe system of nitriding. The Floe system is a method of controlling white layer formation. The high hydrogen content affords a strong deoxidizing potential, which is an advantage in removing surface oxides or preventing oxide...