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high-temperature gaseous corrosion

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... is often difficult because of the range of composition of the corrosive gaseous or molten environments and the variety of materials that may be used. Moreover, corrosion prediction is further complicated, because materials often degrade in a high-temperature environment of a given application by more than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract When metal is exposed to an oxidizing gas at elevated temperature, corrosion can occur by direct reaction with the gas, without the need for the presence of a liquid electrolyte. This type of corrosion is referred to as high-temperature gaseous corrosion. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract This article examines the characteristics and behavior of scale produced by various types of oxidation. The basic models, concepts, processes, and open questions for high-temperature gaseous corrosion are presented. The article describes the development of geometrically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003716
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... In most cases, corrosion resistance at high temperatures does not accompany the good mechanical properties of structural materials; therefore, protective coatings must be applied. Electrochemical principles are insufficient to understand the mechanism of oxidation. For gaseous reactions, a basic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003577
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... or alloy is exposed to a liquid electrolyte, usually water, and thus typically called aqueous corrosion. The second area is where corrosion takes place in a gaseous environment, often called oxidation, high- temperature oxidation, or high-temperature corrosion, and called gaseous corrosion here. These two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... used in studying high-temperature corrosion. However, it should be stressed that the discontinuous methods have certain advantages. Discontinuous methods allow for examination of specimens after different lapse times, so it is possible to follow changes in scale and alloy structure at different stages...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., the range of the composition of corrosive gaseous or molten environments, and the variety of materials that may be used in a given power system. Moreover, corrosion prediction is further complicated because materials often degrade in a high-temperature environment of a given application by more than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Corrosion 220 High-temperature gaseous corrosion High-Temperature Gaseous Corrosion 228 Oxidation High-Temperature Gaseous Corrosion (section on High-Temperature Oxidation) 230 Sulfidation High-Temperature Gaseous Corrosion (section on Sulfidation) 230 Carburization High...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract High temperature corrosion may occur in numerous environments and is affected by factors such as temperature, alloy or protective coating composition, time, and gas composition. This article explains a number of potential degradation processes, namely, oxidation, carburization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... Gaseous corrosion is usually associated with high-temperature environments. Atmospheric corrosion is not considered a part of gaseous corrosion because the corrosion reaction occurs in a thin aqueous layer on the surface of the metal. Galvanic and stray current corrosion are not environment specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and the articles “Molten Salt Corrosion,” “Liquid Metal Corrosion,” and “High-Temperature Gaseous Corrosion” in Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection , Volume 13A of ASM Handbook , 2003. Oxidation The reactor (or calciner), where the chemical reaction is taking place in an oxidizing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... solution, with the result that corrosion protection is lost. A remedy for dissolving nitrogen or carbon into stainless steel without the formation of chromium nitrides or carbides would be choosing a high temperature at which nitrides/carbides are no longer stable or a low temperature at which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... that themselves are eroded by the coal fines and oxidized as a result of the high temperatures. Products of combustion, waste silica, and exhaust gas can erode heat-exchange tubes in a boiler. Burning biomass ( Ref 1 , 2 ) accelerates erosion-corrosion in power plants. Sliding wear can be a challenge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005986
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... not differ from the one formed on carbon steels. Basically the same type of structure also appears in high-alloyed tool steels ( Fig. 4 ). Austenitic stainless steels , which present a different structure depending on the treatment temperature ( Ref 6 – 8 ). At low temperatures, below 430 °C (805 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... , HCl, and HF are considered to be corrosive at high temperatures. Reference Ref 4 reports typical ranges of concentrations in mass-burning units as 100 to 200 ppm SO 2 , 400 to 600 ppm HCl, and 5 to 20 ppm HF; in refuse-derived-fuel units (RDF) 200 to 400 ppm SO 2 , 600 to 800 HCl, and 10 to 30 ppm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003588
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of protective coatings. Fundamental Data Essential to an understanding of the gaseous corrosion of a metal are the crystal structure and the molar volume of the metal on which the oxide builds, both of which may affect growth stresses in the oxide. For high-temperature service, the melting point...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... encountered in NH 3 recovery systems. High-temperature corrosion will occur in hot dissociated NH 3 . Aluminum Alloys Aluminum and its copper-free alloys show good resistance to dry, gaseous NH 3 at ambient or elevated temperatures. Corrosion rates of<0.025 mm/yr (<1 mil/yr) at 21 °C (70 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... entrained gasification at elevated temperatures, with the incombustible fraction forming a slag that is water-quenched in the bottom of the gasifier to allow easy removal by lock-hoppers. The high-temperature gas product is cooled using a heat exchanger within the gasifier, and the gaseous impurities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005977
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... the corrosion-resistance properties as a consequence of the CrN precipitation. Nevertheless, nitriding treatments performed at lower temperatures (<723 K) avoid the precipitation of CrN particles and allow the formation of layers composed essentially of an S-phase that shows high hardness and very high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0004050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the specific features and mechanisms of oxidation in thermal spray coatings. It discusses the two forms of hot corrosion in sulfur-containing combustion, namely high-temperature hot corrosion and low-temperature hot corrosion. The article reviews...