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high-temperature environmental attack

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of corrosion and their preventive measures in the compressor, combustor and turbine sections of a steam turbine. The compressor section mainly suffers from aqueous corrosion; while in case of the combustor and turbine sections, which are made of nickel-base superalloys, high-temperature environmental attack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... Gaseous corrosion is usually associated with high-temperature environments. Atmospheric corrosion is not considered a part of gaseous corrosion because the corrosion reaction occurs in a thin aqueous layer on the surface of the metal. Galvanic and stray current corrosion are not environment specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... suffer environmentally assisted cracking are highly specific and therefore avoidable by proper design of the industrial components. corrosion corrosive environments environmentally assisted cracking high-temperature corrosion industrial applications nickel alloys NICKEL ALLOYS are very...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Uniform Fig. 14 Type 20-20 cast High-temperature sulfidation and carburization Fig. 36 Nonferrous alloys Copper Intergranular attack Fig. 56 , Fig. 57 Copper Stress-corrosion cracking Fig. 64 , Fig. 65 Copper Localized pitting, formicary Fig. 41 , Fig. 42 Copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... oxidizing chemicals, strong solvents, extreme pHs, or combinations of these with high temperatures Source: Ref 3 These environmental descriptions are somewhat similar, to the extent that they progress from a relatively mild, noncorrosive environment to a relatively aggressive environment...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... such environments are oxidizing. Increasing iron in the alloy increases its susceptibility to nitridation attack. Titanium and aluminum are also detrimental to nitridation attack ( Ref 18 ). Carbon-Nitrogen Interaction This type of high-temperature interaction can be found in centrifugally cast furnace tubes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to nitridation attack. Titanium and aluminum are also susceptible to nitridation attack ( Ref 21 ). Carbon-Nitrogen Interactions This type of high-temperature interaction is found in centrifugally cast furnace tubes made of HK-40 (26Cr-20Ni) and HL-40 (30Cr-20Ni) alloys used for many years in ethylene...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... entrained gasification at elevated temperatures, with the incombustible fraction forming a slag that is water-quenched in the bottom of the gasifier to allow easy removal by lock-hoppers. The high-temperature gas product is cooled using a heat exchanger within the gasifier, and the gaseous impurities...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... effective in suppressing high-temperature oxidation up to and including the temperature at which the alloy normally ignites. The oxidation rate of magnesium in oxygen increases with temperature. At elevated temperature (approaching melting), the oxidation rate is a linear function of time. Cerium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... these classes, ceramic materials and refractories differ in applications. Ceramics are used as structural substitutes for alloys in high-temperature environments, such as heat exchangers in the process industries and gas turbines in the aerospace and power-generation industries. Some typical ceramics...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... cracking Alignment, vibration, balance High cycle, low stress: large fatigue zone; low cycle, high stress: small fatigue zone Attack morphology and alloy type must be evaluated Severity of exposure conditions can be excessive; check: pH, temperature, flow rate, dissolved oxidants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...) applies, although it is rare in atmospheric corrosion. The case of n = 1 2 is often encountered in high-temperature oxidation, suggesting that the corrosion rate is determined by mass transport through the corrosion product. Actually, cases of n < 1 2 exist in mild atmospheres...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003619
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., such as molten metal attack and hot corrosion, are less specific. Detailed descriptions of such modes of attack are given elsewhere is this Volume and in Ref 1 and 2 . The most common high-temperature degradation mode is oxidation, and the protection against oxidation, in general, is given by the formation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... fuel cells, and missile components. This article discusses high-temperature corrosion in boilers, diesel engines, gas turbines, and waste incinerators. Boilers are affected by stress rupture failures, waterside corrosion failures, fireside corrosion failures, and environmental cracking failures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article provides information on the thermodynamics and kinetics of high-temperature corrosion. The thermodynamics of high-temperature corrosion reactions reveals what reactions are possible under certain conditions and kinetics explains how fast these possible reactions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... tube bundle, which can vary from 650 to 900 °C (1200 to 1650 °F). As a result, the tube shields typically suffer chloride attack and sulfidation attack. Furthermore, the shields are typically attached to the tube by mechanical clamps and fillet welds. In addition to high-temperature corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... and their derivatives (mineral spirits, lower alcohols, glycols, etc.) 3E: Chemical atmospheric exposure, severe. Including oxidizing chemicals, strong solvents, extreme pHs, or combinations of these with high temperatures For the most part, these environmental descriptions are somewhat similar to the