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high-strain-rate uniaxial stress response

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract The constitutive relations for metalworking include elements of behavior at ambient temperature as well as high-temperature response. This article presents equations for strain hardening and strain-rate-sensitive flow, with alternate sections on empirically determined properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... quenching and can be very high in magnitude, so their effect must be mitigated by postquench treatments. The following provides details about the residual-stress magnitudes and distributions introduced into aluminum alloys by the thermal operations associated with heat treatment. The available technologies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... predisposed it to failure by creating a point or volume in which the actual stress exceeds the strength of the material. Additionally, the microstructure may vary from location to location. On the other hand, if failure occurs in an area of high stress, overload may also be suspected. Of course, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... range of true axial plastic strain in a fatigue loading cycle, N f is the number of loading cycles to failure, and ε′ f and c are material property parameters. When the number of cycles exceeds the transition fatigue life N T , a smooth specimen will fail by high-cycle fatigue (HCF) according to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... number of cycles to failure ( Ref 52 ). The relation between the plastic and the elastic strain can be summarized as follows: in high-life ranges, the plastic strain rapidly diminishes to negligible values, and the elastic strain range dominates. In the low-life range, the plastic component of strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... this article is on the various types of static load testing, hardness testing, and impact testing. Other specialized testing, such as wear testing, dynamic (high-strain-rate) testing, elevated-temperature creep/stress rupture, residual stress, fracture mechanics, and fatigue testing, are potentially...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... hysteresis curve ( Fig. 10 ). As a result, tension increases the permeability at low fields and lowers it at high fields. The appearance of negative magnetostriction is associated with domain vector rotation, which causes a contraction strain at saturation and decreases total magnetization ( Ref 7 ). Two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... recrystallization, dislocation annihilation only occurs when the dislocation density reaches such high levels that strain-free recrystallized grains are nucleated. Therefore, the rate of strain hardening is high until recrystallization occurs ( Fig. 13 , curve b). However, when it begins the flow stress drops...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... levels that strain-free re-crystallized grains are nucleated. Therefore, the rate of strain hardening is high until recrystallization occurs ( Fig. 16 , curve b). However, when it begins, the flow stress drops rapidly as recrystallization progresses. Materials that experience rapid recovery and thus do...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... 13) ε = ε 0 + m t n where ε 0 , m , and n are constants that depend on the material, temperature, and stress. Equation 13 is often referred to as Findley's equation ( Ref 14 , 15 , 24 ). Because the secondary creep region is often characterized by a constant rate of strain, it...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... FEM. The detailed temperature, strain, and strain-rate histories at each individual material point in a workplece are also available from FEM simulations. Simulation of thermomechanical processes can be based on models of continuum mechanics, transport phenomena (heat flow), and metallurgical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... deformation. For example, a true stress/true strain relationship is used in cold rolling, while in hot rolling, the true stress is related to the strain, strain rate, temperature, and, sometimes, to a metallurgical parameter. This parameter can be the activation energy for plastic deformation or the carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., triggers slip on secondary systems. The contribution to the strain by secondary dislocations is negligibly small; however, since they will entangle with primary dislocations, they have a strong catalytic effect on the storage rate of dislocations and cause the high hardening coefficient in stage II. As...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-relaxation testing. Shear testing, torsion testing, and formability testing are also discussed. The discussion of tension testing includes information about stress-strain curves and the properties described by them. compression testing fatigue testing formability testing fracture testing hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.... Transgranular creep ruptures, which generally result from high applied stresses (high strain rates), fail by a void-forming process similar to that of microvoid coalescence in dimple rupture ( Ref 45 , 46 , 47 ). Because transgranular creep ruptures show no decohesive character, they will not be considered...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... occur without warning under static loading at stresses well below the yield strength. Brittle fracture is induced by low temperatures, high strain rates, and a state of triaxial tensile stresses, such as produced by a notch. Only two of the three are necessary to initiate brittle fracture. In many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... signals vary widely in shape, size, and rate of occurrence, depending on the structure and test conditions. An extremely high rate of occurrence results in individual burst-type signals combining to form continual and ultimately continuous emission. In some cases, the subject of the AE inspection is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...) test temperature, but also the temperature history during the test. Fig. 8 Stress-strain curves for solid torsion specimens of 3.3% Si steel showing effect of gage-length-to-diameter ratio ( L / d ) on flow stress at high strain rates when adiabatic heating occurs. The flow curves are in terms of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... slope of the straight-line portion of the plastic range is related to the strain-hardening exponent. A large slope, or a rapid increase in stress with increase in strain, indicates a high strain-hardening rate. The strain-hardening of α-titanium is greater than that of β-titanium, as shown in Fig. 11...
Book Chapter

By Sammy Tin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... encountered during service conditions. At high stresses and at temperatures >0.5T m , dislocation power-law creep dominates. The strain rate is related to stress by the following equation: (Eq 21) ε ˙ ∝ ( σ μ ) n For power-law creep, the strain rate (γ) is extremely sensitive...