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high-pressure steam piping

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... requirements of the components exposed to supercritical water in supercritical (SC) and ultrasupercritical (USC) power plants. These components include high-pressure steam piping and headers, superheater and reheater tubing, water wall tubing in the boiler, high-and intermediate-pressure rotors, rotating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., and watch for signs of phosphate corrosion. Phosphate corrosion in high-pressure utility boilers may be addressed with equilibrium phosphate chemistry control. HIGH-TEMPERATURE WATER AND STEAM react with boiler steel to form oxides, hydroxides, hydrates, and hydrogen, but formation of a protective oxide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... should occur by steam injection in temporary circulation piping or by use of a temporary heat exchanger. High temperature can also increase corrosion in the vapor space. Foam cleaning uses a static foam generator that employs air or nitrogen to produce a foamed solvent. As with cascade cleaning, air...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... steel components. Solid-particle erosion is experienced in high-pressure and intermediate-pressure inlets (nozzle blocks, stationary and rotating blades, and valves). It is caused by exfoliation of steam-grown oxides in superheater tubes and in steam pipes. Fig. 9 Low-pressure turbine...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... water, boiling water, low-quality steam, high-quality steam, and superheated steam. A temperature gradient between the tube wall and the fluid within the tube provides the driving force for heat transfer at any point. The design of a steam-generating unit balances the heat input from the combustion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... that the primary structural materials used in the fabrication of the nuclear steam supply system—stainless steels and nickel-base alloys—were characterized by very high general corrosion resistance in high-purity, high-temperature LWR-type environments. The problem was that the “qualifying” laboratory tests did...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to wrought Monel pipe. Metallographic examination disclosed many small microfissures in the weld metal, but no microfissures were found in the HAZs of the wrought Monel. This section of line contained high thermal stresses that resulted from injection of steam a short distance upstream from the coupling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Droplet Impingement Erosion on Groove Roughness , Nucl. Eng. Des. , Vol 330 , 2018 , p 368 – 376 10.1016/j.nucengdes.2018.02.021 19. Sasaki H. and Iga Y. , Numerical Analysis of Influence of Roughness of Material Surface on High-Speed Liquid Droplet Impingement , J. Pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are similarly additive. Other significant sources of cyclic stresses are fans or pumps, which generate high-frequency vibrations in coolant circuits; turbulent fluid flow through or over tubes, such as steam flow over condenser tubes; and such upsets as water hammer in steam-generating equipment (see...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... specific analyses are needed to assure the safety of all types of conditions including high-pressure, high- and low-temperature, and hazardous materials. These analyses must be performed to show that the system designs meet very detailed and elaborate national and international safety codes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... failure, steam leaks 100–10,000 Flow-accelerated corrosion wall thinning of vessels and piping FAC, possibly cavitation High flow velocity, turbulence, low oxygen, excess oxygen scavenger, material, CH V, UI Leaks 100–1000 Cracking of internal supports and spray nozzles CF O, D V, poor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of all types of conditions, including high-pressure, high- and low-temperature, and hazardous materials. These analyses must be performed to show that the system designs meet very detailed and elaborate national and international safety codes, such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... and Test Facilities</italic> <italic>Examples of Test Results</italic> The safe and reliable operation of systems including pressure vessels, piping, and tubing with high stored energies has to be guaranteed under all loading conditions. The basis for this are design rules and material requirements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cracking Alloy Environment Carbon steel Hot nitrate, hydroxide, and carbonate/bicarbonate solutions High-strength steels Aqueous electrolytes, particularly when containing H 2 S Austenitic stainless steels Hot, concentrated chloride solutions; chloride-contaminated steam; hot...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of a low heat input, multiple-pass procedure. Conclusions The intergranular SCC of the 150 mm (6 in.) schedule 80S type 304 stainless steel pipe exposed to high-temperature, high-pressure, high-purity water in 7 years of heat exchanger service was believed to have been caused by: Stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... design of water boxes, injector nozzles, and piping. Abrupt angular changes in direction of fluid flow, low-pressure pockets, obstruction to smooth flow, and any other feature that can cause localized high velocities or turbulence of the circulating water should be minimized as much as possible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Reactors ( Amelia Island, FL ), American Nuclear Society, 1997 , p 65 – 73 94. Czajkowski C.J. , Evaluation of the Transgranular Cracking Phenomenon on the Indian Point No. 3 Steam Generator Vessels , Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping , Vol 26 , 1986 , p 97 – 110 10.1016/0308-0161(86...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... occurrence in gas turbines, high-temperature exposure of carbon and low-alloy steels used for piping and pressure vessels to high-pressure hydrogen leads to a special form of degradation known as hydrogen attack. In contrast to hydrogen embrittlement, which degrades toughness at low temperatures and imposes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... steel, but improved resistance to hydrogen attack. Recently, 2 1 4 Cr-1Mo and 3Cr-1Mo steels with vanadium additions have been commercially developed for high-temperature pressure vessels and piping ( Ref 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ). The vanadium-bearing steels have better strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... are designed to withstand the pressures and temperatures that would accompany a high-energy fluid (primary coolant, steam, or feedwater) release into the building. On the occasion of these events, the emergency systems that are activated are the fan coolers or ice condensers, containment sprays, and borated...