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high-power laser melting

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... pickup. High-power plasma torches can be used with minimum modification to the existing ladle design. Prior to their integration into steel ladle metallurgy stations, plasma torches had been used primarily for scrap melting and heat-loss compensation before and during continuous casting. Only thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... short-pulse, high-peak power laser to “flash evaporate” a multicomponent target and transfer the composition of that target to a nearby substrate. PLD did not achieve widespread popularity at the time of its discovery, partly because the lasers required were not commercially available and the duty...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... a key factor that provides fairly broad independence regarding part shape and orientation of the part surface relative to the laser beam. The fact that ultrasound is emitted by the part itself, however, has the drawback that too high laser power or energy could cause undesirable damage. Also...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... from “in-place procedures.” The high volume of inexpensive, more common glass products produced by these processes is usually made from soda-lime silicate glass compositions. These melting and forming processes provide a wide range of possibilities with respect to product quality and cost. Special...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... melting pouring magnesium molding sands machining characteristics high-temperature alloys MAGNESIUM ALLOY CASTINGS can be produced by nearly all of the conventional casting methods, namely, sand, permanent, and semipermanent mold and shell, investment, and die casting. The choice of a casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... components. However, high heat inputs are required to melt the workpiece material. Hence, for small-scale applications it is essential to provide enough power to melt the material without excessive heating. Pulsed Nd:YAG lasers produce intermittent laser beams (1 Hz to 1 kHz) that have sufficient power to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... be several kilowatts, while the average power does not exceed 500 W. The optical resonator, or head, of a YAG laser is relatively small, approximately 900 mm (35 in.) × 350 mm (15 in.) wide × 170 mm (7 in.) high and 50 kg (110 lb), for a 500 W unit, which allows it to be carried on a motion system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... chloride with high temperature Applications where the aqueous corrosion properties of nickel alloys are important factors in materials selection include the petroleum, chemical, and electrical power industries. Nickel alloys are industrially important for their...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., discontinuously reinforced composites and continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. Processing methods include cold pressing, sintering, hot pressing, reaction bonding, melt infiltration, directed metal oxidation, sol-gel and polymer pyrolysis, self-propagating high-temperature synthesis and joining. A table...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... products. Melting in a vacuum reduces the hydrogen content of titanium and essentially removes other volatiles. This tends to result in high purity in the cast ingot. However, anomalous operating factors such as air leaks, water leaks, arc-outs, or even large variations in power level affect both the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... electron concentration. High temperature and long contact times promote wettability due to interfacial reactions, resulting in reduced contact angle between the ceramic phase and the melt. The work of adhesion between a ceramic and a melt decreases with increasing heat of formation of carbides. A high...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... ranging from 52 to 68 °C (126 to 156 °F) are the most common. The low cost of these waxes, combined with their ready availability, convenient choice of grades, high lubricity, and low melt viscosity, accounts for their wide use. However, applications are limited somewhat by their brittleness and high...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... melting temperatures equal to or in excess of those of cobalt-base alloys. Iron and cobalt both undergo allotropic transformations and become fcc at high temperatures; nickel, on the other hand, is fcc at all temperatures. In superalloys based on iron and cobalt, the fcc forms of these elements...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... higher than is possible with any other known continuous beam, including laser beams. The high power density plus the extremely small intrinsic penetration of electrons in a solid workpiece result in almost instantaneous local melting and vaporization of the workpiece material. That characteristic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... 30 V. The high power requirements result in heating of the equipment and thus it requires cooling. The units are normally air- or water-cooled. Depending on the thickness of the material and the current density, there are various methods of supplying the electric current. With thick materials, the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003194
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... important application for lasers, is not covered in this process summary chart. High velocity electrons focus on workpiece and vaporize material. Equipment Power supply, excitation source (the “pump”), lasing material, focusing lens, work handling fixtures, CNC control Electron beam cutter with...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... PLASMA ARC CUTTING (PAC) employs an extremely high-temperature, high-velocity, constricted arc between an electrode contained within the torch and the piece to be cut. The arc is concentrated by a nozzle onto a small area of the workpiece. The metal is continuously melted by the intense heat of the arc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... ablation at very high power densities to the transformation hardening of steels and the annealing of metals and alloys at relatively low power densities. The only processes applied to titanium and titanium alloys to any significant extent are surface melting, surface cladding, and surface alloying...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...-reactor chemical vapor deposition free-standing structures high-temperature coatings laser chemical vapor deposition metal-organic chemical vapor deposition nonsemiconductor materials plasma chemical vapor deposition thermal chemical vapor deposition CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION (CVD) is a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., simple form, or slot grinding High stiffness Good form holding Good thermal conductivity Potential for high-speed operation Generally requires high grinding forces and power Difficult to true and dress Layered products Single abrasive layer plated on a premachined steel...