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high-modulus graphite fibers

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of the incandescent light in the 1870s, were not made in large quantities until the late 1960s. At that time it was found that carbonizing several fibrous materials resulted in a continuous fiber with relatively low density and high Young's modulus of elasticity. This fiber could then be used much as glass fiber had...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...Abstract Abstract This article is a compilation of tables containing property data for major reinforcement materials, including high-modulus fibers, carbon fibers, graphite fibers, glass fibers, ceramic short fibers and whiskers. Data are provided for physical, mechanical, chemical, thermal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... resulted in a continuous fiber with relatively low density and high Young's modulus of elasticity. This fiber could then be used much as glass fiber had been used: to provide a continuous reinforcement in various resin systems for the fabrication of structural components. Initial interest...
Book Chapter

By Paul J. Walsh
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0009241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... raw material cost, because inferior properties and a low char yield (20 to 25%) after carbonization made for a higher overall cost. Properties can be improved by stress graphitization at high temperatures, but this increases cost further, making the fiber even less desirable. Rayon is still used today...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... tensile strength and percent strain, while the material that uses carbon fiber in a high-melt-temperature pitch-resin matrix exhibits the highest modulus. Fig. 6 Room-temperature mechanical properties of carbon-fiber/carbon-matrix (carbonized resin/CVD carbon) composites (tensile hoop rings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...(a) Comparative properties and costs of selected high-performance reinforcing fibers for polymer-matrix composites Trade name Generic name Manufacturer Composition Ref Density Elastic modulus Tensile strength Specific modulus (a) Specific strength (a) Break elongation Coefficient of thermal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of carbon and graphite fibers, which account for about 90% of all three-directional woven preforms. High-modulus graphite fiber is particularly prone to fracture during preform construction. Weave Geometry There are more than 20 varieties of multidirectionally reinforced preforms. Only the three...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., and vice versa. The intermediate fibers have been the only exception. Increases in the amount of fiber graphitization result in increased modulus, which in turn results in increases in thermal and electrical conductivity. The cost of the fiber also increases, primarily because of lower demand for the high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... as a matrix metal. The melting point of aluminum is high enough to satisfy many application requirements, yet low enough to render composite processing reasonably convenient. Also, aluminum can accommodate a variety of reinforcing agents, including continuous boron, Al 2 O 3 , SiC, and graphite fibers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... subjected to the highest heat treatment temperature during manufacture. The properties of these high-modulus fibers are less affected by temperature exposure during carbon-carbon processing than high-strength intermediate-modulus fibers that have not been previously exposed to graphitizing temperatures...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... point of aluminum is high enough to satisfy many application requirements, yet low enough to render composite processing reasonably convenient. Also, aluminum can accommodate a variety of reinforcing agents. Although much of the early work on aluminum MMCs concentrated on continuous fiber types, most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... strength, lower modulus with little graphitization of the fiber surface, and the pitch being moderate strength, high modulus with greater levels of surface graphitization. The article “Carbon Fibers” discusses the characteristics of carbon fibers in more detail. Key properties of some carbon fibers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... expansion (CME) for the final assembly (Ref 28 , 29 , and 30 ). Sandwich panels and trusses are conventionally employed. High- or ultrahigh-modulus graphite fibers impregnated with epoxy or cyanate-ester resin are normally used to fabricate the laminates or tubes. In a quasi- isotropic laminate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of damping (and stiffness) with θ of a symmetrical, high- modulus, graphite-fiber-reinforced epoxy plate. Beam specimens were cut at angles from–90° to +90° relative to the fiber direction in the outer layer of this (0°,–60°, +60°) s plate. Fig. 12 Variation of flexural modulus ( E ) and damping (Ψ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... This article selects, from the many available composite fiber-resin combinations manufactured by conventional processing methods, a few that are representative of the common, high-volume types as well as a few of the more specialized types. These materials are identified and briefly described...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... cannot achieve as high a fiber volume fraction as filament winding, braids can assume more complex shapes (sharper curvatures) than filament-wound preforms. The interlaced nature of braids also provides a higher level of structural integrity, which is essential for ease of handling, joining, and damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003479
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... to shoot the arrow farther and faster. The high modulus of graphite helps give the archer bull's-eye accuracy. Another bow has a syntactic foam core sandwiched between unidirectional glass and graphite fibers. The design is strong, light, and stable, allowing the archer to shoot an arrow at high speed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... heads. Light weight, high modulus, and high impact resistance were requirements for this application. Hybrid glass and graphite materials are being considered to improve impact resistance and lower material costs. Automotive Air-pump compressor vanes are a potential application for long-fiber...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... reinforcement materials include the base fiber, which is a special variation of high-tenacity rayon tire cord reinforcement, pitch fibers, and polyacrylonitrile fibers. The base fiber is woven into plain, leno, and satin weaves and subsequently carbonized at below 1650 °C (3000 °F). Polyacrylonitrile fibers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... fibers. That is, the straight fibers in a laminate will load and fail before the relaxed fibers are fully loaded. Fiber alignment is especially important for high-modulus fibers such as carbon-graphite because of their low strain-to-failure behavior. Correct use of fiber tension during winding...