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high-level waste container materials

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article addresses the long-term corrosion behavior of high-level waste (HLW) container materials, more specifically of the outer shell of the containers. It discusses time, environmental, and materials considerations for the emplacement of HLW in geological repositories...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of the O 2 and leaves little available for NO x production. With staged fuel, the combustion starts in a high excess air zone where temperatures are cool enough to inhibit NO x production. Staged combustion has allowed the application of regenerative-type air preheats with NO x levels approaching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... HF. These levels of SO 2 , HCl, and HF are not likely to be responsible for high wastage rates observed for nickel-base alloy 625 (Ni-22Cr-9Mo-3.5Nb, UNS N06625) in superheaters in some boilers. As shown in Fig. 1 , for example, alloy 625 overlay cladding (approximately 2 mm thick) was completely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of Hastelloy C. Low-Level Radioactive Waste In the nuclear power industry, waste materials such as rags and clothes are treated as low-level radioactive waste. While containing little or no radioactivity, they must be treated separately from general waste. To reduce the handling volume of this material...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., because high levels produce hazy PET flakes that become tan-colored on heating. Further discoloration and degradation occurs during extrusion, producing a lower-IV resin. Contamination by trace metal and residual monomers comes from catalyst residues and comonomers used during polymer manufacture. Trace...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... for approximately 66 h at 600 °C (1110 °F) ( Ref 27 ). Nevertheless, binary iron-base alloys containing very high levels of chromium (≈50%) may show some promise ( Ref 28 ); however, additional testing is still required. Fig. 5 A micrograph of a cracked section at the top of a 316L alloy U-bend sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... (d) The quantitation limit is greater than the calculated regulatory level and therefore becomes the regulatory level. Source: Ref 2 Another factor in determining whether the spent fluid is hazardous is chlorine content. According to the federal regulations, if the waste contains over 1000...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0004050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... (a.u). Corrosion-Resistant Coatings in Boilers Aggressive environments exist in boilers burning biofuels, especially annual crops and the green parts of the trees, which contain plenty of potassium and chlorine. Besides biofuels, waste-based fuels and high-chlorine coal cause accelerated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... has curtailed drastically the use of lead pigments as well as other toxic pigments, such as those in the chromium, mercury, and tin families. Although such pigments can be used legally in paint, the substantial costs due to worker protection and the high costs associated with containment and disposal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the cyanide content of waste solutions. Its results include cyanide present in the solution as ferrocyanide, so this method may indicate relatively high cyanide contents. The pH level can be determined by meters, pH papers, or colorimetric comparison with suitable indicators. Hydroxide content can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003582
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... Patyn J. , Van Iseghem P. , and Timmermans W. , The Long-Term Corrosion and Modeling of Two Simulated Belgian Reference High-Level Waste Glasses.II , Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XIII Symposium , Materials Research Society, 1990 , p 299 – 307 32. Mouche E...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Agitation levels are usually fixed once the equipment is installed but should be designed to achieve solution flow rates as high as practical while considering issues such as equipment and utility costs, solution foaming, and part damage. An often overlooked factor in improving cleaning performance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... component strength level, configuration, and intended service environments. Failure to evaluate cadmium replacements applied to high-strength steels could result in catastrophic component failures. Analysis of Table 4 data suggests that on some high-strength, high-performance parts for which solid alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Using a hood to capture emissions, which in turn are forced through carbon absorbers or ultraviolet oxidation systems Using high-transfer-efficiency application equipment Maintaining spent wipe solvent rags in closed containers Limiting plantwide emissions Imposition of a permit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... be inspected and cleaned. Boiler regions with high heat flux may be redesigned with ribbed or rifled tubing to alleviate film boiling. Boiler operation should be monitored to avoid rapid start-ups, excessive firing rates, low drum levels, and improper burner operation. Waterside Corrosion Failures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of time. The rate is linear and is about 0.25 mm/yr. Here a molybdenum-containing alloy such as alloy 28 (27Cr-31Ni-3.5Mo-Cu, UNS N08028) is a better choice because it has a parabolic corrosion rate, with less than 0.25 mm loss after 17,000 h exposure. When the gasified fuel has very high chlorine levels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... hours and on occasion several days. The process is space consuming with a high level of work in progress. More modern mass finishing processes offer greater versatility and convenience, with better use of labor and consistency of quality in production. For these reasons, and because higher operator...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... to permit control of worker exposures to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure levels High vapor density, in comparison with air, and low rate of diffusion into air, to minimize loss of solvent to the atmosphere Chemical stability in the process, which requires...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
.... The first is called a conventional etch (also known as a no-dump etch). The second type of etch is the caustic recovery system. Conventional etchants typically contain high levels of sodium hydroxide, aluminum, and proprietary additives used to assist in producing a matte finish and to keep aluminum...
Book Chapter

By John C. Bittence
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys and Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials, Volumes 1 and 2 of the ASM Handbook. Selection of the best procedure for sorting always involves a tradeoff between cost and profit. Virtually all aspects of scrap...