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high-fracture-toughness nickel-cobalt steel

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005960
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... hardening heat treatment high-fracture-toughness nickel-cobalt steel mechanical properties normalizing overaging quenching refrigeration straightening stress relieving tempering QUENCHED AND TEMPERED HIGH-ALLOY STEELS include various types of stainless steels, as discussed in other articles in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... distinctly different families of steels. The article focuses on medium-carbon low-alloy steels, medium-alloy air-hardening steels, and high fracture toughness steels. The medium-carbon low-alloy family of ultrahigh-strength steels includes AISI/SAE 4130, the higher-strength 4140, and the deeper hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... temperatures of about 480 deg C. Commercial maraging steels are designed to provide specific levels of yield strength in the range of 1030 to 2420 MPa. However, some experimental maraging steels have yield strengths as high as 3450 MPa. These steels typically have very high nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
...: D2 Pawls Clutch parts … Spindles and clutch parts (if high toughness is needed): L6 Spring steel (1.10–1.15% C) Battering tools, hand and power … … … Pneumatic chisels for cold work: S5 For higher performance: S7 … … For intermittent use: W1 (0.80% C) Source: Ref 4...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Pearlitic steels have high strength and are fully adequate to support heavy axle loads of modern locomotives and freight cars. Most of the load is applied in compression. Pearlitic steels also have relatively poor toughness and cannot generally withstand impact loads without failure. The rail steel could...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
..., especially when embedded in soft ferrite. Pearlitic steels have high strength and are fully adequate to support heavy axle loads of modern locomotives and freight cars. Most of the load is applied in compression. Pearlitic steels also have relatively poor toughness and cannot generally withstand impact loads...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... usually possess excellent cryogenic properties and good high-temperature strength. Chromium content generally varies from 16 to 26%; nickel, up to about 35%; and manganese, up to 15%. The 2 xx series steels contain nitrogen, 4 to 15.5% Mn, and up to 7% Ni. The 3 xx types contain larger amounts of nickel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... constructional alloy steels: aluminum, boron, chromium up to 3.99%, cobalt, niobium, molybdenum, nickel, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, zirconium, or any other alloying element added to obtain the desired alloying effect Alloying elements are added to hot-finished plates for various reasons, including...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005949
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... Plain carbon steels have no specified minimum or any required alloying of chromium, cobalt, niobium, molybdenum, nickel, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, or zirconium, or any other element to obtain a desired alloying effect. Carbon steels typically have allowable residuals of 0.04 wt% P (max) and 0.05 wt...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... levels of yield strength from 1030 to 2420 MPa (150 to 350 ksi). Some experimental maraging steel have yield strengths as high as 3450 MPa (500 ksi). These steels typically have very high nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum contents and very low carbon contents. Carbon, in fact, is an impurity in these steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... cobalt-base filler metals are proprietary. In addition to boron and silicon, these alloys usually contain chromium, nickel, and tungsten to provide corrosion and oxidation resistance and to improve strength. As discussed in the section “Stainless Steels” of this article, the presence of chromium in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article reviews specific processing characteristics and forging-related properties of commonly forged families of metals and alloys, including carbon and alloy steels, stainless steels, heat-resistant alloys (iron, cobalt, and nickel base alloys), aluminum alloys, copper and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...-initiating carbides are absent and the martensite matrix is more ductile. In addition, maraging steels contain retained austenite (due to the high nickel content), which causes extensive plastic deformation and strain-induced martensitic transformation at the crack tip during fracture, thus increasing the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... superalloys, namely, iron-nickel superalloys, nickel-base alloys, cobalt-base alloys, and powder alloys. The article discusses the microstructural mechanisms during hot deformation and presents processing maps for various superalloys. It concludes with a discussion on heat treatment of wrought heat-resistant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... particle is moved relative to the surface, grooving and an associated material removal takes place. In contrast to construction steel, cobalt- and nickel-base alloys, such as Stellite 6 and NiCrBSi, have a higher hard-phase volume fraction and thus a higher wear resistance. The abrasive flint is softer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... ) of the test piece is determined both before the test and after the predetermined number of revolutions. Volume loss is inversely related to wear resistance. Typical volume losses for low-cobalt, fine-grain materials are on the order of 3 mm 3 . D2 tool steel (high carbon, high chromium air-hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... stainless steel production, with another 10% in alloy steels and 2.5% in copper alloys. Nickel is also used in special-purpose alloys: controlled expansion, electrical resistance, magnetic, and shape memory alloys. Falling between iron and nickel in the periodic table, cobalt has many similar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... combine both abrasion and impact, a volume fraction of 26 to 32% is preferred ( Ref 15 ). Nickel- and cobalt-base alloys can be employed when the corrosive, temperature, and/or wear conditions for a given application are considered too high for iron-base materials. Nickel-base overlays are generally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... their hardness. Low and cobalt-free alloys were developed due to the high cost and potential carcinogenicity of cobalt. Nickel and iron additions are used for corrosion resistance and high wear resistance, respectively, in some applications. Prealloyed powders of Fe-Ni-Co are also used. The two-phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006094
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... vanadium, higher cobalt, and lower molybdenum), originally developed as a cast blade alloy by International Nickel Co. of Canada Ltd. (Inco). IN-100 exhibited excellent high temperature strength due to a high γ′ content. P&W experimented with press-compacted billets that were subsequently...