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high-chromium white irons

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...-chromium white irons, chromium-molybdenum irons, and high-chromium white irons. Mechanical properties for three white irons representing each of these three general groups are presented as bar graphs. The article also describes the various heat treatments of a martensitic microstructure, including...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... treatment to develop proper balance between resistance to abrasion and toughness needed to withstand repeated impact. This article provides a brief discussion on the heat treatment, mechanical properties, and chemical compositions of high-alloy white cast irons such as nickel-chromium white irons and high...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article presents a discussion on the melting, pouring, and shakeout practices; composition control; molds, patterns, and casting design; heat treatment; and applications of different classes of nickel-chromium white irons and high-chromium white irons. iron castings heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... note small microcracks through sulfide inclusions. SEM, 1,150×. (R.C. Voigt and B. Pourlaidian, University of Kansas) Cracking in 75-mm (3-in.) diam balls made of a high-chromium white iron when subjected to severe, repeated impacts in a laboratory test. Fig. 106 : Cracks through eutectic M 7 C 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005942
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... microstructure (as low as 0.1% Mn in ferritic gray irons and as high as 1.2% in pearlitic). Other alloying elements include nickel, copper, molybdenum, and chromium. The heat treatment of gray irons can considerably alter the matrix microstructure with little or no effect on the size and shape of the graphite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... cooling, this area freezes as white iron (that is, when held at high temperature long enough for carbon to dissolve) due to the high cooling rates. The region is very complex and may contain many different types of microstructures. If the amount of graphite dissolved during welding is high enough and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... capillary action. Cast irons are lower in brazeability than carbon steels, due to the adverse effects on wettability from graphite, high silicon content, and sand inclusions on as-cast surfaces. Some high-silicon cast irons may have silicon oxide on the surface of the casting, which prevents wetting by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Ni Cr Mo Cu Abrasion-resistant white irons Low-carbon white iron (d) 2.2–2.8 0.2–0.6 0.15 0.15 1.0–1.6 1.5 1.0 0.5 (e) CP High-carbon, low-silicon white iron 2.8–3.6 0.3–2.0 0.30 0.15 0.3–1.0 2.5 3.0 1.0 (e) CP Martensitic nickel-chromium iron 2.5–3.7 1.3...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... max 0.06 max II D 20% Cr-Mo 2.0–3.3 2.0 max 1.0–2.2 2.5 max 18.0–23.0 3.0 max 1.2 max 0.10 max 0.06 max III A 25% Cr 2.0–3.3 2.0 max 1.5 max 2.5 max 23.0–30.0 3.0 max 1.2 max 0.10 max 0.06 max Fig. 3 High-chromium white iron microstructures. (a) As-cast...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... consumes cast steel, Ni-Hard, and high-chromium white iron grinding balls. Grinding rods are commonly hot rolled high-carbon steel (AISI 1080 to 1095), as well as AISI 52100 steel. The grinding media need to be harder than the ore to be ground. The composition and hardness of typical steel and white iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... modified ASTM A439 type D-2B austenitic iron, but with flake graphite due to the high silicon content. Its composition was 2.4% C, 0.7% Mn, 5.7% Si, 3.3% Cr, and 19.5% Ni. Note that the silicon is typical for an ASTM A436 type 4, but the nickel and chromium levels are much lower. The composition meets ASTM...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...: ° C  :   730   +   28.0   ( %  Si )   −   25.0   ( %  Mn ) ° F  :   1345   +   50.4   ( %  Si )   −   45.0   ( %  Mn ) Chromium raises the transformation range of gray iron. In high-nickel, high-silicon irons, for example, each...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001435
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... resistance. Tensile strengths can range from 160 to 620 MPa (23 to 90 ksi). White iron, if given the proper heat treatment, can transform into a ductile form of cast iron known as malleable iron. The iron carbides present are dissociated during a high-temperature anneal above 870 °C (1600 °F) for more than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... malleable iron generally conforms to the ranges given in Table 1 . Chromium (0.01 to 0.03%), boron (0.0020%), copper (∼1.0%), nickel (0.5 to 0.8%), and molybdenum (0.35 to 0.5%) are also sometimes present. Table 1 Typical compositions for malleable iron Composition, % Element Ferritic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
.... Foundrymen's Soc. , Vol 3 , 1984 , p 40 – 44 • Biner S.B. , The Role of Eutectic Carbide Morphology on the Fracture Behavior of High-Chromium Cast Irons, Part I: Austenitic Alloys , Can. Metall. Q. , Vol 24 ( No. 2 ), 1985 , p 155 – 162 • Bulloch J.H. , Fractographic Analysis...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005332
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., nickel, beryllium, chromium, and iron. The article discusses minor alloying additions, including antimony, bismuth, selenium, manganese, and phosphorus. Copper alloys can be cast by many processes, including sand casting, permanent mold casting, precision casting, high-pressure die casting, and low...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006348
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... balls and rods, are made of various alloys ( Ref 18 , Ref 19 , Ref 20 , Ref 21 , Ref 22 , Ref 23 , Ref 24 , 25 ). The mining industry consumes cast steel, Ni-Hard, and high-chromium white iron grinding balls. Grinding rods are commonly hot rolled high-carbon steel (AISI 1080 to 1095), as well as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005945
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... irons. These include gray iron, ductile iron, compacted graphite iron, white iron, malleable iron, and high-alloy iron. The article describes how to control temperature and atmosphere during the heat treatment of the iron castings. annealing atmosphere control cast iron compacted graphite iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... High-carbon, low-silicon white iron 2.8–3.6 0.3–2.0 0.30 0.15 0.3–1.0 2.5 3.0 1.0 (e) CP Martensitic nickel-chromium iron 2.5–3.7 1.3 0.30 0.15 0.8 2.7–5.0 1.1–4.0 1.0 … M,A Martensitic nickel, high-chromium iron 2.5–3.6 1.3 0.10 0.15 1.0–2.2 5–7 7–11 1.0 … M,A...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... materials are basically white cast irons alloyed with 12 to 35% Cr. Other alloying elements may also be added to improve resistance to specific environments. When chromium levels exceed 20%, high-chromium cast irons exhibit good resistance to oxidizing acids, particularly nitric acid (HNO 3 ). High-chromium...