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high strain rate testing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... carried out in a servohydraulic machine such as that shown schematically in Fig. 1 . Because strain-rate effects are large in high-temperature testing, it is important to use an apparatus with high machine stiffness. The furnace that surrounds the specimen is usually of resistance, radiant-heating, or...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of steels (particularly weldments) to hydrogen embrittlement. The threshold obtained by this method will be somewhat high, as test duration at each load is short. Fig. 18 Typical load-time record for four-point rising step-load test To index susceptibility to hydrogen-assisted cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... from necking. Therefore, the utility of the tension test is limited in workability testing. This test is primarily used under special, high-strain-rate, hot tension test conditions to establish the range of hot working temperatures. A description of this test method can be found in the article “Hot...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... within 0.5 to 5 min. Most testing machines are capable of measuring from 0.05 cm/min (0.02 in./min) to 50 cm/min (20 in./min). When measurement is taken at a high strain rate, the elongation at break tends to be shorter and the yield stress tends to increase ( Ref 21 ). The ultimate strength for most...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the need for extrapolation, but they are not as durable as analog testers. In statistical process control of Brinell testing, there is no adequate way to achieve high process capability indices (C p and C pk values) without making the investment in state of the art optics that utilize frame...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the low strain rates found in creep, but is not a frequent occurrence at the faster strain rates in deformation processes unless there are brittle precipitates at the grain boundaries. This is because the probability of wedge cracking varies with the applied strain rate. If the strain rate is so high...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... The article describes testing methods such as room and high-temperature strength test methods, proof testing, fracture toughness measurement, and hardness and wear testing. It also explains methods for determining thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and emissivity of ceramics and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... ( Ref 5 ) has been used since the 1950s to investigate the hot-tension behavior of materials and thus to generate important information for the selection of hot-working parameters. A Gleeble unit is a high-strain-rate, high-temperature testing machine where a solid, buttonhead specimen is held...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... rotating flywheel acting through a cam, which produces strain rates as high as 500 s −1 . Cam plastometers are expensive and also have the disadvantage that the working limits of the material are not measured. Hot torsion testing involves subjecting a dog-bone-shaped specimen to torsion on a machine that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...) test temperature, but also the temperature history during the test. Fig. 8 Stress-strain curves for solid torsion specimens of 3.3% Si steel showing effect of gage-length-to-diameter ratio ( L / d ) on flow stress at high strain rates when adiabatic heating occurs. The flow curves are in terms of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... damage will occur, it does highlight regions of high strain-rate sensitivity. These regions occur where damage is less likely because “necks” tend to push deformation to other, nonnecking areas, thus diffusing the necking mechanism. A strain-rate sensitivity about 0.2 to 0.3 is considered quite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... this article is on the various types of static load testing, hardness testing, and impact testing. Other specialized testing, such as wear testing, dynamic (high-strain-rate) testing, elevated-temperature creep/stress rupture, residual stress, fracture mechanics, and fatigue testing, are potentially...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Selection of test methods used to determine the mechanical properties of composite materials must take environmental factors into account, since exposure to any environment affects these properties. Early in the development of high-performance carbon fiber composites, it was discovered that merely leaving...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... deviations are found ( Ref 9 ). Material can be removed from a solid surface by melting or sublimation, by chemical dissolution, or by physical separation of atoms from the surface ( Ref 10 ). The last can be accomplished either by a single high-strain event or by a series of strains. Wear, the process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... implants and implant materials, because the rate of the attack in the pits is high. Another form of localized attack is crevice corrosion , which occurs in tight spaces, such as at areas of contact between parts of an implant, or under coatings and deposits, where the mass transport to and from the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., porosity, cracks, inclusions, fiber distribution, fiber alignment, curing state Good if automated Very good for delaminations, inclusions, voids, porosity Relatively slow; point-to-point test Poor; need for couplant Low if manual testing; high if automated X-radiography Inclusions, fiber alignment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...% Cr and the maximum amount of it is in solid solution, the increase in resistivity of high-purity aluminum (2.65 μΩ ⋅ cm at 20 °C) is 0.77 × 4.00 + 0.23 × 0.18 = 3.13 μΩ ⋅ cm. The potent effects on resistivity of chromium, iron, lithium, manganese, titanium, and vanadium are apparent. Table 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., cobalt Ultrasonic testing (UT) High-frequency vibrations are introduced into sample. Waves are reflected or scattered by discontinuities. In many cases, UT may be used to detect, size, and image flaws. Cracks, laps, thickness/wall thinning, pitting, erosion/corrosion, voids, delamination. Works best...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., triggers slip on secondary systems. The contribution to the strain by secondary dislocations is negligibly small; however, since they will entangle with primary dislocations, they have a strong catalytic effect on the storage rate of dislocations and cause the high hardening coefficient in stage II. As...