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high strain rate

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... carried out in a servohydraulic machine such as that shown schematically in Fig. 1 . Because strain-rate effects are large in high-temperature testing, it is important to use an apparatus with high machine stiffness. The furnace that surrounds the specimen is usually of resistance, radiant-heating, or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., triggers slip on secondary systems. The contribution to the strain by secondary dislocations is negligibly small; however, since they will entangle with primary dislocations, they have a strong catalytic effect on the storage rate of dislocations and cause the high hardening coefficient in stage II. As...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... determine the susceptibility of alloys to SCC and hydrogen embrittlement, several types of testing are available. This article describes the constant extension testing, constant load testing, constant strain-rate testing for smooth specimens and precracked or notched specimens of SCC. It provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the low strain rates found in creep, but is not a frequent occurrence at the faster strain rates in deformation processes unless there are brittle precipitates at the grain boundaries. This is because the probability of wedge cracking varies with the applied strain rate. If the strain rate is so high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract The constitutive relations for metalworking include elements of behavior at ambient temperature as well as high-temperature response. This article presents equations for strain hardening and strain-rate-sensitive flow, with alternate sections on empirically determined properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the low strain rates found in creep but is not a frequent occurrence at the faster strain rates in deformation processes unless there are brittle precipitates at the grain boundaries. This is because the probability of wedge cracking varies with the applied strain rate. If the strain rate is so high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... intent was to roll square bars into round wire without resolutioning. Rolling was done on a two-high reversible bar mill with 230 mm (9 in.) diam rolls at 30 rpm (approximate strain rate: 4 s −1 ). The roll groove geometry is shown in Fig. 25 . Defects occurred primarily in the square-to-diamond passes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.... Transgranular creep ruptures, which generally result from high applied stresses (high strain rates), fail by a void-forming process similar to that of microvoid coalescence in dimple rupture ( Ref 45 , 46 , 47 ). Because transgranular creep ruptures show no decohesive character, they will not be considered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... both high elongation and high strain-rate sensitivities at elevated temperatures. This characteristic allows complex parts to be formed at temperatures in the α-β phase field. Titanium, like other metals, is processed into standard shapes, tube, billets, bar, sheet, and wire...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... the applied temperature, time, and heating rate. The processes involved are ( Ref 2 ): Recovery : All microstructural changes during annealing processes of deformed materials that occur without the migration of a high-angle grain boundary (i.e., >10 to 15° misorientation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., which means that the generation of new grains is combined in an intricate way with other phenomena associated with high-temperature straining, such as work hardening and dynamic recovery ( Fig. 1d ). Two types of DRX can, in fact, be distinguished. By contrast to the Avrami...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... dislocations ( Ref 30 , 31 ). The high-resolution electron microscopy image shows misfit dislocations that accommodate the difference of the lattice constants of the two phases. This interface has a different structure for two different thicknesses of the growing spinel and different growth rates. In Fig. 10...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... material to plastic, or permanent strain. The reduction-of-stress rate will be a function of alloy, temper, temperature, and time. Unalloyed copper C11000 (electrolytic tough pitch) is probably the most inexpensive high-conductivity copper and is used extensively because of the ease of fabrication. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... bands ( Fig. 6 ) are a typical defect when heading alloys with low formability at high strain rates and low temperatures. More information on workability and testing is available in the article “Evaluation of Workability for Bulk Forming Processes” in this Volume and in Ref 62 , Ref 63 , Ref 64...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... schedules. The article describes the metallurgical processes in grain refinement of austenite steel by hot working, such as recovery and recrystallization and strain-induced transformation. The grain refinement in high strength low alloy steel by alloy addition is also discussed. The article provides an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Hammers and high-energy-rate forging machines are classified as energy-restricted machines as they deform the workpiece by the kinetic energy of the hammer ram. This article provides information on gravity-drop hammers, power-drop hammers, die forger hammers, counterblow hammers, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... from necking. Therefore, the utility of the tension test is limited in workability testing. This test is primarily used under special, high-strain-rate, hot tension test conditions to establish the range of hot working temperatures. A description of this test method can be found in the article “Hot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... acicular alpha. Another novel process to obtain fine-grain, equiaxed alpha structures in alpha-beta titanium alloy forgings consists of high-strain-rate processing just below the beta-transus temperature combined with controlled cooling ( Ref 28 ). Deformation heating raises the temperature of the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... within 0.5 to 5 min. Most testing machines are capable of measuring from 0.05 cm/min (0.02 in./min) to 50 cm/min (20 in./min). When measurement is taken at a high strain rate, the elongation at break tends to be shorter and the yield stress tends to increase ( Ref 21 ). The ultimate strength for most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... / a The last equation demonstrates that strain rate may be high and, therefore, a sufficiently low extrusion speed should be used in many cases of ECAE, especially for thin billets. An analytical solution for ECAE without friction gives for punch pressure: p = 2 k cot θ For a tool...