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heterogeneous phase

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article is a comprehensive collection of the thermodynamic equations and property relations of the first and second laws of thermodynamics that are applicable to closed-system consisting of several homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. thermodynamics thermodynamic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... for an alloy, which means that very slow heating and cooling rates are used to generate data for their construction. The equilibrium states that are represented on phase diagrams are known as heterogeneous equilibria , because they refer to the coexistence of different states of matter (gas, liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... transition phases can form prior to forming the final equilibrium phase. Like solidification, nucleation in solid-state reactions is almost always heterogeneous. Heterogeneous nucleation occurs at structural defects such as grain boundaries, dislocations, and interstitial atoms. During a solid-state...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract A phase diagram is a graphical representation of the phase equilibria of materials in terms of temperature, composition, and pressure. This article provides an overview on the background of phase diagram calculation software. It presents an algorithm to calculate binary stable phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... , 34 ) have also been developed to increase the computational efficiency of quantitative phase-field simulations. Heterogeneous phase distribution in solids can cause a long-range elastic strain field that varies at the scale of the microstructure ( Ref 4 , 35 , 36 ). Even in a single-phase domain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... that the tangents to each G curve at the equilibrium compositions lie on a common line. In other words, each component must have the same chemical potential in the two phases, that is, for heterogeneous equilibrium: (Eq 49) μ A α = μ A β  and  μ B α = μ B β From Eq 49 it can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article focuses on transport phenomena and modeling approaches that are specific to vapor-phase processes (VPP). It discusses the VPP for the synthesis of materials. The article reviews the basic notions of molecular collisions and gas flows, and presents transport equations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... Abstract This article focuses on the industrial applications of phase diagrams. It presents examples to illustrate how a multicomponent phase diagram calculation can be readily useful for industrial applications. The article demonstrates how the integration of a phase diagram calculation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract Precipitation reactions occur in many different alloy systems when one phase transforms into a mixed-phase system as a result of cooling from high temperatures. This article discusses the homogenous and heterogeneous nucleation and growth of coherent and semicoherent precipitates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... without going into dislocation theory. The article discusses modeling of hardness in cast iron based on a regular solution equation in which the properties of each phase depend on chemical composition and coarseness. It describes the evaluation of material parameters from the tensile stress-strain curve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Diagrams ,” the Gibbs phase rule applies to all states of matter (solid, liquid, and gaseous) under equilibrium conditions. When matter is in thermal equilibrium, the coexistence of heterogeneous phases can occur such that: P = C − F + 2 where P is the number of phases (or homogeneous state...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... This is common practice in liquid processing of cast iron because they are inoculated with specially designed alloys. Heterogeneous nucleation is influenced by the solid metal/solid nucleus interface energy. The value of this energy depends on the crystal structure of the two phases. The interface between...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Nucleation during solidification is a thermally activated process involving a fluctuational growth in the sizes of clusters of solids. The article describes nucleation phenomenon such as homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation. It discusses various grain refinement models, such as carbide-boride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... nucleation and growth can be classified as either homogeneous or heterogeneous. Most transformations are of the heterogeneous type, where initiation of the transformation requires a critical nuclei size for further growth of a new phase. The critical nuclei size for growth is based on the competition between...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
.... annealing castings deformation diffusion coefficient grain growth heat treatment heterogeneous nucleation homogeneous nucleation homogenization isothermal transformation nonferrous metals precipitation hardening recrystallization recrystallization temperature solid-state phase transformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... ) and solid solution (α) Invariant transformations may also occur from a solid-state parent phase. Solid-state invariant reactions are a category of heterogeneous phase transformations that involve moving reaction boundaries and phase separation. Invariant transformations differ from precipitation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... at an invariant point on the phase diagram of an alloy, where the initial (parent) phase may be either a liquid or a crystalline solid. Solid-state invariant reactions are a category of heterogeneous phase transformations that involve moving reaction boundaries and phase separation. Invariant transformations...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Rapid solidification is a tool for modifying the microstructure of alloys that are obtained by ordinary casting. This article describes the fundamentals of the four microstructural changes, namely, microsegregation, identity of the primary phase, identity of the secondary phase...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the eutectic phases occurs by a heterogeneous mode, since the homogeneous mode is seldom viable in freezing alloys. Hence, the inoculant impurity levels, distribution in melt, and their potency are critical in defining the undercooling required for nucleation. The potency of nucleation by an impurity inoculant...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-spheroidal graphite eutectic, and austenite-iron carbide eutectic. The article provides a discussion on primary austenite and primary graphite. Depending on the carbon equivalent, the primary phase in cast iron can be either austenite for hypoeutectic cast iron or graphite for hypereutectic cast iron...