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heterogeneous nucleation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., heterogeneous nucleation, and dynamic nucleation. It reviews the classification of eutectics based on their growth mechanism: cooperative growth and divorced growth. The article concludes with a discussion on the solidification structures of peritectics. cast iron constitutional undercooling dynamic...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...) shows the classical spherical cap model for heterogeneous nucleation. Inset (ii) shows a cap of α-aluminum growing on an inoculant particle through the critical hemispherical condition. Fig. 16 (a) Effect of changing the nucleant particle potency on the gradient b with a constant number...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... into a mixed-phase system as a result of cooling from high temperatures. This article discusses the homogenous and heterogeneous nucleation and growth of coherent and semicoherent precipitates. It describes two precipitation modes, namely, general or continuous precipitation and cellular or discontinuous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
.... Nucleation can occur by either homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation. Homogenous nucleation occurs when nucleation takes place throughout the bulk of the liquid without preference for any point; that is, the probability of nucleation is the same everywhere within the volume of the liquid. When a solid...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Nucleation Heterogeneous Nucleation The higher the dissolved gas concentration in a molten alloy, the higher the P g value. As a result, porosity will be more likely to occur. When porosity forms, the mass of the gas, ϕ, in pores per 1 g of alloy is calculated using ( Ref 15 ): (Eq 20) 100 ϕ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
.... annealing castings deformation diffusion coefficient grain growth heat treatment heterogeneous nucleation homogeneous nucleation homogenization isothermal transformation nonferrous metals precipitation hardening recrystallization recrystallization temperature solid-state phase transformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... . There are three ways in which a solid can form: homogeneous nucleation, heterogeneous nucleation, and epitaxial growth. Homogeneous nucleation occurs when there is no foreign body (mold wall, solid particle in the melt, etc.) on which to form the solid. Figure 2 shows the balance of the surface tension...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of these alloys, the first eutectic solid forms by heterogeneous nucleation, and the second solid nucleates contiguously and heterogeneously but may not necessarily nucleate on the first solid phase. In Fig. 5 , regions marked 1 and 2 are termed normal or regular eutectic structures and constitute structures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... Source: Ref 6 Fig. 33 Schematic illustration showing dendrite tip undercooling Fig. 6 Schematic illustrations of homogeneous (a and b) and heterogeneous (c and d) nucleation. Figures on the left are for a temperature above the melting point. Figures on the right...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... a saltlike carbide, M z C. Graphite then grows heterogeneously from the melt on the carbon planes of the carbide. A different theory of heterogeneous nucleation in FG iron has also been proposed ( Ref 11 ). Based on the study of the influence of the inoculation of pure iron-carbon and Fe-C-Si alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005435
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., while blocks at the right denote a sequence of dynamic phenomena interacting with these structural levels. As denoted by the interconnections, initial nucleation is sensitive to interfacial defects generated by the processing history, determining the initial number density, N i , of heterogeneous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... temperatures cause an increase in the time required to start and complete the pearlitic and bainitic transformations of austenite. In addition, the transformation kinetics are also affected by the shape and distribution of graphite precipitates acting as heterogeneous nucleation sites. As shown in Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., because this eventually would have to involve carbon diffusion through a graphite shell. The first multistage nucleation mechanism seems to have been proposed by Weis ( Ref 33 ), who argued that nucleation of LG occurs on SiO 2 oxides formed by heterogeneous catalysis on CaO, Al 2 O 3 , and oxides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Orientation Influence of the Type of Phase Diagram Effect of Constitutional Undercooling Effect of Solidification Velocity Homogeneous Nucleation Heterogeneous Nucleation Dynamic Nucleation Kinetic Undercooling Thermal Undercooling Constitutional (Solutal) Undercooling Curvature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... , and Flemings M.C. , Solidification of Highly Undercooled Sn-Pb Alloy Droplets , Metall. Trans. A , Vol 15 , 1984 , p 1303 – 1310 10.1007/BF02648558 34. Turnbull D. , Kinetics of Heterogeneous Nucleation , J. Chem. Phys. , Vol 18 , 1950 , p 198 – 203 10.1063/1.1747588 35...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Fig. 1 Sargent circle for model verification and validation. Source: Adapted from Ref 4 Fig. 2 System diagram for the dynamic structural hierarchy for heterogeneous nucleation of martensite Fig. 3 Architecture of mechanistic martensite start temperature (M s ). fcc, face...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... that the particles act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the η phase. Precipitates Precipitates are fine phases or clusters that form during aging of a supersaturated solid solution (see also the article “Age Hardening of Aluminum Alloys...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of Heterogeneous Nucleation on Microstructure Evolution in Peritectic Systems , Scr. Mater. , Vol 53 ( No. 1 ), 2005 , p 47 – 52 10.1016/j.scriptamat.2005.03.019 • Trivedi R. and Shin J.H. , Modelling of Microstructure Evolution in Peritectic Systems , Mater. Sci. Eng. A , Vol 413–414...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... 25 ) allows the definition of a steady-state nucleation rate, J st , and an incubation time, t inc . Fig. 6 Possible shapes of a nucleus in heterogeneous nucleation. (a) Cap shape. (b) Lens shape Fig. 8 Parallel tangent construction leading to the maximal nucleation driving...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... conductivity of common heat treatable aluminum alloys that have been solution heat treated and quenched. Product form is aluminum sheet. Fig. 13 Precipitation of MgZn 2 at heterogeneous sites. (a) On subgrain boundaries. (b) On a manganese-bearing dispersoid. Source: Ref 37 Fig. 18...