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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively in a wide variety of implant applications, such as artificial heart pumps, pacemaker cases, heart valve parts, and load-bearing bone or hip joint replacements or bone splints. This article discusses the properties of titanium and its...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... parameters affecting wear of ceramics, namely, hardness, thermal conductivity, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance. The next part of the article addresses temperature-resistant applications of advanced ceramics. Specific applications of ceramic materials addressed include cutting tools, pump and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... R50400, UNS R50550, UNS R50700, Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3, Grade 4, Grade F-1, Grade F-2, Grade F-3, Grade F-4 Fixation devices; knees; hips; spinal; elbows; toes; wrists; ears Clips; pacemakers; filters; heart valves; bypass devices; defibrillators Ti-3Al-2.5V ASTM F1246 Titanium Grade 9...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... that require a PMA and challenge the “best” biomaterial selection include implanted cerebral stimulators, breast implants, replacement heart valves, and implantable pacemakers. Fig. 2 Conventional material requirements in orthopaedic applications. Source: Ref 8 Comments on the regulatory...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... most closely matches that of the optics. Because of its unique corrosion behavior, titanium is used extensively in prosthetic devices such as artificial heart pumps, pacemaker cases, heart-valve parts, and load-bearing bone or hip-joint replacements or bone splints. (In general, body fluids are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... critical concern. Potential impact wear problems are also found in dental implants and heart valves, where health and well-being are at stake. In this article, some generic features of impact wear are described and two particular examples are examined in detail. Two modes of...
Book Chapter

By Matthew Donachie
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... are used as the ball in the articulating region of a hip joint, as bioactive coatings on implants, and in certain aspects of dental use—for example, as fillers or for porcelain enameling (a ceramic process). Carbon finds use in heart valves and dental implants. As for polymeric materials, silicone has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., plates, replacement joints, bone prostheses, cements and intra-osseous devices Tissue: pacemakers, drug-supply devices, neuromuscular, replacement tendons, breast implants Blood devices Principally contact the blood Pacemaker electrodes, heart valves, vascular grafts, internal drug-delivery...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... appearance of the metal and to produce a smooth, tight surface. Buffing is used as a final finishing operation and is particularly adaptable to finishing a localized area of a part. Parts such as body prostheses, pacemakers, and heart valves require a highly buffed, tight surface to prevent entrapment of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
.... Carbon-base ceramics are also used for replacement heart valves, where resistance to blood clotting (blood compatibility) and mechanical fatigue are essential characteristics. The mechanism of tissue attachment is directly related to the type of tissue response at the implant interface. No material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... plastics and their use in medical applications, including contact lenses, ocular implants, dental implants, artificial kidneys, and heart valves. The early stages of synthetic plastics for medical applications were dominated by surgeon-visionary entrepreneurs (sometimes called “surgeon heroes”) who were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...-entry heat shields, rocket nozzles, and other aerospace components (carbon-carbon) High-temperature turbine blades and components for internal combustion engines (silicon nitride) Heart valves and dental implants (pyrolytic carbon) Note: Pyrolytic carbon is a generic term commonly used for CVD...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... regenerate, for example, heart muscle cells. Inflammation is an important part of the wound-healing process following implantation, often resulting in swelling and redness accompanied by heat and pain. It involves the migration of cells to the injury site via a process called chemotaxis, removing the dead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... the precision investment casting methods now in use made the first type of defect unexpected in medical devices. Thus, the failures noted with the Bjork-Shiley heart valve, described later, were surprising. Absent such defects, crack initiation was noted to arise from various microstructural features...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Buffing is used as a final finishing operation and is particularly adaptable to finishing a localized area of a part. Parts such as joint prostheses, pacemakers, and heart valves require a highly buffed tight surface to prevent entrapment of particles. Close-fitting parts for equipment, such as guidance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... part, by titanium-base alloys (because of their lower elastic modulus and high yield strength) and stainless steel, although even the latter is increasingly being displaced by titanium-base products. In cardiovascular surgery, cobalt-chromium alloys are used for making artificial heart valve components...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...; T, temperature The feed screw is the heart of the operation. Two designs are shown in Fig. 5 . Most profile extrusions are produced with a single-stage screw. Almost all screws have a square pitch with the lead of the flight being equal to the screw diameter. More detailed descriptions of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005966
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... this manner. Cast irons contain much more carbon than steels, so the implications of decarburization are somewhat different, even if the physical chemistry is much the same. Decarburization sometimes is used to advantage in processing cast iron. White-coring malleable cast iron (“white heart”) is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., in vivo loading conditions, and device misuse. Large-scale device failures, such as the Bjork-Shiley Convexo-Concave heart valve issues experienced in the 1980s and 1990s ( Ref 2 , Ref 3 , Ref 4 ), have helped shape governmental regulations and the entire medical device industry. Medical device...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... A VIM furnace is simply a melting crucible inside a steel shell that is connected to a high-speed vacuum system ( Fig. 1 ). The heart of the furnace is the crucible ( Fig. 2 ) with heating and cooling coils and refractory lining. Heating is done by electric current that passes through a set of...