1-20 of 348 Search Results for

hardness conversion equations

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...Abstract Abstract Hardness conversions are empirical relationships that are defined by conversion tables limited to specific categories of materials. This article tabulates examples of the published hardness conversion equations for various materials including steels, cement carbides, and white...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... converted hardness numbers indicates the measured hardness and test scale in parentheses—for example, 451 HB (48 HRC). The method of conversion (table, formula, or other method) should also be defined. Examples of published hardness conversion equations Table 1 Examples of published hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0006001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... converted hardness numbers indicates the measured hardness and test scale in parentheses—for example, 451 HB (48 HRC). The method of conversion (table, formula, or other method) should also be defined. Examples of published hardness conversion equations Table 1 Examples of published hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of published hardness conversion equations Table 1 Examples of published hardness conversion equations Steels HB = 7300 130 − HRB (40–100 HRB) HB = 3710 130 − HRE (30–100 HRE) HB = 1 , 520 , 000 − 4500   HRC ( 100 − HRC ) 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... values taken from a conversion table are 82.8 HRA, 73 HRD, 69.9 HR45N, 80.1 HR30N, and 91.4 HR15N. (See the article “Hardness Conversions for Steels” in this Volume.) Referring to Table 3 , only three Rockwell scales—45N, 30N, and 15N—are appropriate for testing this hardened 0.36 mm (0.014...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... empirically, and there is a degree of error associated with all conversions. The primary source for hardness conversions is ASTM E 140, which lists the conversions in tabular form and also contains equations based on the tabular data. Some MHT units have these tables or the equations built in and will list...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ). The compiled data were used to produce graphical representations (curves) from which equations describing these curves were derived. These equations were subsequently used to generate the tabular data commonly used to convert one hardness scale to another. As stated in the “Principle of Method of Conversion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., A , and the material shear strength, τ, expressed as: (Eq 2) F = m τ A where m is the friction factor. Equation 2 is known as the Tresca friction law. Equations 1 and 2 are illustrated in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Friction force as a function of normal force in dry forming. Note that for metal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... = λ 0 . Figure 11 facilitates the conversion from dimensional to nondimensional variables, h to λ, and vice versa. Note that Fig 11 also includes cylindrical geometries, for which the wear equations can be found in Ref 1 . Fig. 11 (a) h / C variation versus λ and ρ for spherical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... anodizing conversion coating metallurgy trace elements Pourbaix diagrams Aluminum, magnesium, titanium, and beryllium are classified as light metals , because whether used in their pure state or as alloys, their purpose is to reduce the weight of components and structures. The property...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... finite element methods ( Ref 5 ). These techniques are particularly useful for complicated geometries and provide the quantity: (Eq 2) K I / σ = g where σ is the stress on the component, and g is defined as the ratio of stress intensity to stress. Equation 1 then becomes: (Eq 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... a correlation of tensile strength and hardness for a particular material (and/or material condition). A correlation with hardness may not be evident. For example, magnesium alloy castings did not exhibit a hardness-strength correlation in a study by Taylor ( Ref 11 ). Hardness-tensile strength conversions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... development and testing programs. The strain-life approach is effective in characterizing the fatigue behavior of materials because it accounts for plastic strain, which is a fundamental cause of fatigue crack initiation. Constitutive equations between strain and life are therefore useful because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
.... Such parameters are boundary conditions, material properties, and nonuniform initial temperature distribution. Underestimation of application specifics or overly simplified assumptions can lead to an incorrect mathematical model (including improperly chosen governing equations) that will not be able to provide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... ) An approximate value for f HK can be found by applying Bowden and Tabor’s equation for the coefficient of friction for the contact between a rigid surface and a plastically deforming surface in the presence of a thin and closed film: μ = τ/ H ( Ref 29 ). In this equation, H represents the hardness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of the material as a whole will be obtained. In addition, the heavier the load, the greater the sensitivity of the scale. Checking any conversion table and comparing the 15N scale to the 30N scale will show that in the hard-steel range a difference in hardness of one point on the 30N scale represents a difference...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... information on the design of the probe, heat-extraction dynamics, and influence of wetting kinematics. It also includes discussions on the simplified 1-D temperature-distribution model, calculation of the HTC, and the finite-volume method for the heat-conduction equation. finite-volume method hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... is attributed to Archard, who published his work in the early 1950s ( Ref 10 ). That equation expresses a convenient linear proportionality ( k ) between the wear volume per unit time (Ψ), the applied load ( W ), the sliding speed ( v ), and the hardness of the softer of the pair of sliding materials ( H...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005966
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... examples of this phenomenology involve the surface and environmental reactions of carbon in steel. Phenomenology involving the removal of carbon from the near-surface of steel is referred to as decarburization . Conversely, phenomenology involving the addition of carbon to the near-surface of steel...