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hardened steel

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... frits; also shown is the amount commonly used, along with the effect of each mill addition. Table 7 Mill additions for wet-process enamel frits for sheet steel and cast iron Additional material Amount added, % Effect of addition Clay 2–8 Suspends glass; increases set; hardens bisque...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... occurs in Q&P steels, thereby effectively contributing to the significant strain hardening. Santofimia et al. ( Ref 15 , 16 ) and Takahama et al. ( Ref 17 ) analyzed microstructural evolution during annealing by using a model considering the influence of martensite-austenite interface migration on...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses the characteristics, composition limits, and classification of wrought tool steels, namely high-speed steels, hot-work steels, cold-work steels, shock-resisting steels, low-alloy special-purpose steels, mold steels, water-hardening steels, powder metallurgy tool...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... structural steels capable of a minimum yield strength of 1380 MPa (200 ksi). These include medium-carbon low-alloy steels, such as 4340, 300M, D-6a and D-6ac steels; medium-alloy air-hardening steels, such as HI1 modified steel and H13 steel; high fracture toughness steels, such as HP-9-4-30, AF1410, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Intensive quenching (IQ) is an alternative method of hardening steel parts, providing extremely high cooling rates within the martensite-phase formation temperature range. This article begins with the description on the general correlation between steel mechanical properties and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... heating of steels that are martensitic or cold worked before austenitizing. Alloy content of the steel can also influence austenitizing response, because carbide-forming elements will delay the diffusion of solute carbon in rapid heating conditions such as induction hardening. Reactions with the external...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Fig. 1 and is microalloyed with vanadium and/or niobium for strengthening. ( Microalloying is a term used to describe the process of using small additions of carbonitride forming elements—titanium, vanadium, and niobium—to strengthen steels by grain refinement and precipitation hardening.) Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... associated age hardening. Extra-deep-drawing-quality grades are made with steel that has been vacuum degassed to very low carbon levels and stabilized with additions of titanium and/or niobium. The stabilized substrates are relatively immune to the thermal effects of hot dipping and provide excellent...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., namely mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching involved in the microstructural analysis of carbon and alloy steels, case hardening steels, cast iron, ferrous powder metallurgy alloys, wrought and cast stainless steels, tool materials, steel castings, iron-chromium-nickel heat-resistant casting alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Thread rolling is a cold-forming process for producing threads or other helical or annular forms by rolling the impression of hardened steel dies into the surface of a cylindrical or conical blank. Methods that use cylindrical dies are classified as radial infeed, tangential feed...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Hardenability is usually the single most important factor in the selection of steel for heat-treated parts. The hardenability of steel is best assessed by studying the hardening response of the steel to cooling in a standardized configuration in which a variety of cooling rates can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Hardenability is a composition-dependent property of steel and depends on carbon content and other alloying elements as well as the grain size of the austenite phase. This article provides an overview of a wide range of testing procedures used to determine and quantify hardenability of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... depth measurement methods case hardening cyaniding nitriding nitrocarburizing steel CARBURIZING is a case-hardening process in which carbon is dissolved in the surface layers of a low-carbon steel part at a temperature sufficient to render the steel austenitic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., austenitizing, quenching, preheating, and tempering commonly employed in certain steels. These are water-hardening tool steels, shock-resisting tool steels, oil-hardening cold-work tool steels, medium-alloy air-hardening cold-work tool steels, high-carbon high-chromium cold-work tool steels, hot-work tool...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Hardenability of steel depends on carbon content and other alloying elements as well as on the grain size of the austenite phase. This article provides information on the calculation of high-carbon (carburized) steel hardenability. It contains tables that list multiplying factors that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Inverse hardening a steel of adequate hardenability requires a workpiece of sufficiently large cross section, an appropriate cooling medium, and the right quenching conditions. This article explains the Temperature Gradient Quenching Analysis System (TGQAS), which can measure, record...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Flame hardening is a heat treating process in which a thin surface shell of a steel part is heated rapidly to a temperature above the critical temperatures of the steel. The versatility of flame-hardening equipment and the wide range of heating conditions obtainable with gas burners...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Successful hardening depends on the hardenability of steel composition, the geometry of parts, the quenching system, and on the heat treating process used. This article provides a brief overview of the computation and use of quench factor analysis (QFA) to quantify as-quenched hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8