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hand-forged billets

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... 10 52 7.5 45 6.5 41 6 38 5.5 26 3.8 10 2 32 4.6 28 4.1 26 3.7 19 2.8 15 2.2 10 3 20 2.9 17 2.5 14 2.1 … … … … Fig. 1 Influence of prolonged holding at elevated temperature on tensile properties of alloy 2618-T61 hand-forged billets. Properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of Conventional Forging with Heavy Ribs and Deep Cavities When a hand-forged billet for prototypes was replaced by a conventional closed-die forging in the manufacture of the 7075 aluminum alloy wing fitting shown in Fig. 7 , the principal design objectives were to secure heavy ribs and deep cavities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., or as the main operation, in producing a shape, roll forging generally involves the shaping of long, thin, often tapered parts. Typical examples are airplane propeller-blade half sections, tapered axle shafts, tapered leaf springs, table-knife blades, hand shovels and spades, various agricultural tools...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003986
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of smaller draft angles and, in some cases, allowing zero draft forging. To maximize the beneficial effects, an effective lubrication system should be relatively insensitive to temperature and pressure. Most important, it should be applied uniformly and consistently throughout a forging run. Hand...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... between two flat dies to upset the forging stock. Open-die forging, also known as hand forging, usually precedes the closed-die forging for two main purposes. First, this preworks the alloy to obtain an adequately worked structure in the final part, especially when large parts are forged from billets...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., the volume fraction of alpha at low temperatures is relatively high, thus promoting the transfer of strain to the alpha particles. On the other hand, the beta phase dominates the microstructure and accommodates the forging strain at high temperatures. Figure 6 shows the microstructure of UFG-processed Ti...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Typical test bar locations are shown in Fig. 9(a) and (b) . When a rib is located parallel to billet orientation in the die, the lateral flow of metal has the effect of cross working as it fills the die. On the other hand, if the rib is located perpendicular to the billet orientation in the die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.9781627081856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... temperature rises from below the Curie temperature to above it. In applications such as surface hardening, the magnetic-wave phenomenon exists during the majority of the heat cycle and plays a very important role in the prediction of the final temperature profile and hardened case depth. On the other hand...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... distribution. For this reason, both the mixing-by-hand- and the rotary-concrete-style mixers should be avoided. Immersible concrete vibrators are preferred for densifying large cross sections, such as refractory blocks surrounding the ide of the coil. The head should be in the range of 19 to 35 mm ( 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... years. The reason for the delay was the absence of methods for achieving the high temperatures needed to melt and to refine iron ore. Most metalworking was done by hand until the 13th century. At this time, the tilt hammer was developed and used primarily for forging bars and plates. The machine...
Book Chapter

By Samuel M. Purdy
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003750
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... for porthole defects as well as defects in forgings, castings, bars, and sheet products. Procedures Sampling The choice of the sample and its orientation to the workpiece are crucial to obtaining good results. In most cases, the problem in hand will point to the location and orientation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003997
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., for example, all-beta alloys can be forged more readily than all alpha and duplex alloys. On the other hand, duplex and beta brasses can suffer embrittling grain growth during excessively long heating in the beta region. Alloying elements other than zinc can be considered in terms of their “zinc equivalency...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005888
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... heating and leading to a faster temperature raise at the core of the billet. This shortens the induction line, but on the other hand, it can also increase the subsurface overheating by shifting the location of the maximum temperature further away from the surface. The use of an appreciably thick...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006468
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... that the conductor is grasped with the right hand so that the thumb points in the direction of current flow. The fingers then point in the direction taken by the magnetic lines of force in the magnetic field surrounding the conductor. This is known as the right-hand rule. Circular Magnetization Electric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... + Zr … Alloy 2297 Alloys 6069 and 6056 Alloys 7033, 7068, and 7449 Alloys 7040 and 7085 Aluminum-Base Discontinuous Metal-Matrix Composites Aluminum alloys are produced by all of the current forging methods available, including open-die (or hand) forging, closed-die forging...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) grades and standard grades of titanium alloys. ( Table 1 illustrates this effect.) In higher-strength grades, oxygen and iron are intentionally added to the residual amounts already in the sponge to provide extra strength. On the other hand, carbon and nitrogen usually are held to minimum residual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the heated body might take place, resulting in poor coil efficiency. On the other hand, when the frequency is too high, the “skin” effect will be highly pronounced, resulting in a current concentration in a very fine surface layer compared with the diameter/thickness of the heated component. In this case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... a certain freedom to try novel approaches. On the other hand, material substitutions may be made to lessen the cost of the test. For example, if one is primarily concerned with the final shape of the billet, one may substitute a less expensive material and run the new cogging procedure to evaluate its...