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hand lay-up

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...Abstract Abstract Wet lay-up using hand or spray techniques is one of the simplest methods of combining a fiber reinforcement with a solidifying resin to form a composite structure. This article describes several wet lay-up processes - including contact molding, spray molding, vacuum bag...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...Abstract Abstract Open molding is the method used in the polymer-matrix composites industry to make thermoset composite products. This article discusses the advantages, disadvantages, and applications of the open molding. It describes the various process of the open molding, such as hand lay-up...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...Abstract Abstract The prepreg hand lay-up process is a versatile, reliable, cost-effective, and high quality process for fabricating large or small components. This article discusses the technique characteristics and applications of the process. It describes the stages involved in the process...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...; multidirectionally reinforced fabrics; hybrid fabrics; woven fabric prepregs; unidirectional and multidirectional tape prepregs; and the prepreg tow. The article discusses three major categories of tape manufacturing processes, namely, the hand lay-up, machine-cut patterns that are laid up by hand, and the automatic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003366
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., and hand lay-up. The article illustrates the manufacturing process of phenolic honeycomb and provides information on the applications of phenolic composites. phenolic resins hot-melt process pultrusion vacuum infusion filament winding sheet molding hand lay-up phenolic honeycomb composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., rotational molding, compression molding, transfer molding, hand lay-up process, casting, and additive manufacturing. compounding operations dies extruder extrusion molding injection molding mixing molds process troubleshooting product design screw extruder thermoforming webline handling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... to the threat of environmental legislation. The main impetus for the development has always been the elimination of styrene emission. The technology was developed as an alternative to open-mold manufacturing processes like hand lay-up and spray-up. Vacuum infusion was considered as a low-cost alternative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... available flat and contour tape-laying equipment. The materials section describes feedstock materials suitable for automatic tape layer (ATL)-grade composite materials. History Advanced composites were introduced in unidirectional tape form in the early 1960s. Originally performed by hand, the lay-up...
Book Chapter

By Don O. Evans
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... fuselage skin ( Fig. 3 ). The program implemented at Northrop Grumman realized a labor savings of 38% when compared to hand lay-up. Northrop Grumman is also using fiber placement for inlet duct skins, side skins, and covers for the F/A-18 E/F. Fig. 3 Fiber placement of the Northrop Grumman F/A- 18 E...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... 100 configuration components. The top and bottom duct halves are fabricated by hand lay-up of T300 carbon-PMR-15 preimidized fabric into external molds. The parts are then bagged and autoclave cured. Prior to production, the duct successfully underwent 2500 hours of ground testing and 700 hours...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...). This observation indicates that the field of composite manufacturing is developing, albeit not at breakneck speed. What may not be immediately obvious are more subtle developments, some of which are discussed here. Traditional open-mold techniques, such as wet hand lay-up and spray-up, are gradually being...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... to incorporate either continuous or random chopped fibers into a structural composite. The process is more rapid and complex than the labor-intensive hand lay-up or liquid matched die molding methods that it often replaces, but it has a trade-off with respect to fiber alignment. Depending on component shape...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... and extrusion are widely employed. Composites based on thermosetting plastics are processed using specially developed methods, including: Contact molding, which employs single-surface molds, as in hand lay-up, spray-up, and filament winding Compression-type molding, as in sheet molding, bulk molding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... joints for woven fabric, or the transverse spacing between fibers is constant for unidirectional materials. The composite ply maps perfectly onto the tool surface without out-of-plane wrinkles or discontinuities. The manufacturing process (hand lay-up, fiber placement, tape laying) defines how...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... appropriate selection of the cross-linking initiator, these resins can be cured at any temperature from ambient to 175 °C (350 °F). Resin and glass fibers are combined at the “mold” in hand lay-up, spray-up, filament winding, pultrusion, and resin transfer molding. Both BMCs and SMCs, as well as other molding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of fiber- placement machines. The processes still require hand lay-up of peel ply, fabric plies, small doublers, and isolation fiberglass for which ply sequence and orientation must be verified and lack of moisture and defects confirmed. The locations for these plies may be marked using an optical lay-up...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... not be repaired with an open hand lay-up process, because this will result in a repair with a much lower fiber-to-resin ratio than the base material. Step 6: Finishing After the patch has cured, a gel coat and/or paint should be applied. Properties and Durability of Scarf Repairs to Laminates Scarf...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... at the composite-to-aluminum interface. Fig. 5 LiteCast control link. Courtesy of National Composite Center Processability Processing of composites has been a constraint in being able to use fully optimized composite designs for automotive applications. Hand lay-up of composite structures is used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... 70–120+ (160–250+) with postcure 150–220 (300–425) with postcure 175–230 (350–450) with postcure Fire, smoke, and toxicity … Requires additives Requires additives Good Good Good Processing (b) Hand lay-up Yes (c) Yes (d) Yes No No No RTM Yes (c) Yes (d) Yes (d...