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hammer stroke

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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 14 Example of a load-stroke curve in a hammer blow. Energy available for forging: E A =η E T (see text for explanation). Source: Ref 11 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the axis of a hammer or press stroke. The article illustrates the measurement of draft angle by describing the designs of forgings produced in equipment with vertical and horizontal rams. The use of excessive amounts of draft usually results in an increase in overall cost. The article describes various...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... deform the workpiece by the kinetic energy of the hammer ram; they are therefore classed as energy-restricted machines. The ability of mechanical presses to deform the work material is determined by the length of the press stroke and the available force at various stroke positions. Mechanical presses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... types: Load-restricted machines (hydraulic presses) Stroke-restricted machines (crank and eccentric presses) Energy-restricted machines (hammers and screw presses) Hydraulic presses are essentially load-restricted machines; that is, their capability for carrying out a forming operation...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The height of fall, and thus the striking force, of the hammer is approximately constant for a given setting and cannot be altered without stopping the machine and adjusting the length of stroke. Anvils on board-drop hammers are 20 to 25 times as heavy as the rams. Fig. 1 Principal components...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
.... Control of Buckling Forming a deeply recessed part in thin sheet by any conventional method usually requires a high holddown force in order to prevent buckling. In drop hammer forming, the holddown action is restricted to the end of the stroke. Therefore, buckles are free to form during most...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., is accomplished during a relatively short portion of the stroke, so that a coining load is required only during a small portion of the press cycle. Drop hammers, and knuckle-type and eccentric-driven mechanical presses are extensively used in coining. High-speed hydraulic presses also are well adapted...
Book Chapter

By H.W. Sizek
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003984
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the propensity for surface cracking, and prevents internal defects from opening and growing. Radial forging was first conceived in Austria in 1946, and the first four-hammer machine was built in the 1960s. Today there are hundreds of machines worldwide in a number of different sizes and configurations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... sockets that require simultaneous upsetting and piercing. Forgings that require center upsets (not at bar end) or offset upsets can also be made. In many cases, hot upsetting is used as a means of preparing stock for subsequent forging on a hammer or in a press. Hot upsetting is also occasionally used...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...” in this article. Hammers and Presses Because the length of the hammer ram stroke and the magnitude of the force must be controllable over a wide range throughout the forging cycle, gravity-drop hammers and most mechanical presses are not suitable for open-die forging. Power forging hammers (air or steam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... closed-die forging close-tolerance forgings conventional forgings friction hammers heating equipment lubrication presses shape complexity trimming CLOSED-DIE FORGING, or impression-die forging, is the shaping of hot metal completely within the walls or cavities of two dies that come...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., drop hammer forming, explosive forming, electromagnetic forming, and superplastic forming. auxiliary equipment blanking contour roll forming deep drawing die materials drop hammer forming electromagnetic forming explosive forming fine-edge blanking forming by multiple-slide machines...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.9781627081856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003997
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... as that used for forging a similar shape from steel, that is, fullering, blocking, and finishing, as required (see the article “Closed-Die Forging in Hammers and Presses” in this Volume). Fig. 1 Examples of copper alloy closed-die forgings. Courtesy of Mueller Brass Company For simpler shapes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... radius decreases progressively during the forming stroke, unlike the fixed radius on conventional dies. Thinning of the work metal, as occurs in conventional deep drawing, is reduced considerably. Different metals and thicknesses can be formed in the same tool. Parts with excellent surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... to produce blocker-type, conventional, and close-tolerance forgings. Selection from the above closed-die types invariably depends on quantity and the cost of the finished part. Additional information on these types of products is available in the article “Closed-Die Forging in Hammers and Presses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
..., namely, press-brake forming, press forming, multiple-slide forming, deep drawing, spinning, rubber-pad forming, drop hammer forming¸ three-roll forming, contour roll forming, stretch forming, and bending of tubing. bending blanking contour roll forming deep drawing drop hammer forming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...; therefore, control of the length of the stroke and of the force and speed of the blows is particularly useful in forging aluminum alloys, because of their sensitivity to strain rate and their exothermic nature under rapid deformation processes. Power-drop hammers are used to manufacture closed-die forgings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... is: “The quality or condition of being safe; freedom from danger, injury or damage.” Most other dictionary definitions are similar. Hammer ( Ref 5 ) says: “Safety is frequently defined as ‘freedom from hazards.’ However, it is practically impossible to completely eliminate all hazards. Safety is therefore a matter...