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hammer stroke

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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 14 Example of a load-stroke curve in a hammer blow. Energy available for forging: E A =η E T (see text for explanation). Source: Ref 11 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of a hammer or press stroke. The article illustrates the measurement of draft angle by describing the designs of forgings produced in equipment with vertical and horizontal rams. The use of excessive amounts of draft usually results in an increase in overall cost. The article describes various alternatives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... deform the workpiece by the kinetic energy of the hammer ram; they are therefore classed as energy-restricted machines. The ability of mechanical presses to deform the work material is determined by the length of the press stroke and the available force at various stroke positions. Mechanical presses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... types: Load-restricted machines (hydraulic presses) Stroke-restricted machines (crank and eccentric presses) Energy-restricted machines (hammers and screw presses) Hydraulic presses are essentially load-restricted machines; that is, their capability for carrying out a forming operation...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The height of fall, and thus the striking force, of the hammer is approximately constant for a given setting and cannot be altered without stopping the machine and adjusting the length of stroke. Anvils on board-drop hammers are 20 to 25 times as heavy as the rams. Fig. 1 Principal components...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
.... Control of Buckling Forming a deeply recessed part in thin sheet by any conventional method usually requires a high holddown force in order to prevent buckling. In drop hammer forming, the holddown action is restricted to the end of the stroke. Therefore, buckles are free to form during most...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., is accomplished during a relatively short portion of the stroke, so that a coining load is required only during a small portion of the press cycle. Drop hammers, and knuckle-type and eccentric-driven mechanical presses are extensively used in coining. High-speed hydraulic presses also are well adapted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... sockets that require simultaneous upsetting and piercing. Forgings that require center upsets (not at bar end) or offset upsets can also be made. In many cases, hot upsetting is used as a means of preparing stock for subsequent forging on a hammer or in a press. Hot upsetting is also occasionally used...
Book Chapter

By H.W. Sizek
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003984
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... for surface cracking, and prevents internal defects from opening and growing. Radial forging was first conceived in Austria in 1946, and the first four-hammer machine was built in the 1960s. Today there are hundreds of machines worldwide in a number of different sizes and configurations. In primary...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...” in this article. Hammers and Presses Because the length of the hammer ram stroke and the magnitude of the force must be controllable over a wide range throughout the forging cycle, gravity-drop hammers and most mechanical presses are not suitable for open-die forging. Power forging hammers (air or steam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... close-tolerance forgings conventional forgings friction hammers heating equipment lubrication presses shape complexity trimming CLOSED-DIE FORGING, or impression-die forging, is the shaping of hot metal completely within the walls or cavities of two dies that come together to enclose...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...-drop hammer operated by the descending punch. in which the ram is raised for each stroke by an bar. (1) A section hot rolled from a billet to a bending rolls. Various types of machinery air cylinder. Because length of stroke can be form, such as round, hexagonal, octagonal, equipped with two or more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.9781627081856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... or part, commonly formed for reinforcement. air-lift hammer. A type of gravity-drop hammer contact areas between touching surfaces. See also drawbead. in which the ram is raised for each stroke by an automatic press. A press with built-in electrical air cylinder. Because length of stroke can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... or nonferrous metals. The article reviews the various types of forming processes such as blanking, piercing, fine-edge blanking, press bending, press forming, forming by multiple-slide machines, deep drawing, stretch forming, spinning, rubber-pad forming, three-roll forming, contour roll forming, drop hammer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003997
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... from steel, that is, fullering, blocking, and finishing, as required (see the article “Closed-Die Forging in Hammers and Presses” in this Volume). Fig. 1 Examples of copper alloy closed-die forgings. Courtesy of Mueller Brass Company For simpler shapes produced by one or two blows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... progressively during the forming stroke, unlike the fixed radius on conventional dies. Thinning of the work metal, as occurs in conventional deep drawing, is reduced considerably. Different metals and thicknesses can be formed in the same tool. Parts with excellent surface finish can be formed, because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
..., press-brake forming, press forming, multiple-slide forming, deep drawing, spinning, rubber-pad forming, drop hammer forming¸ three-roll forming, contour roll forming, stretch forming, and bending of tubing. bending blanking contour roll forming deep drawing drop hammer forming formability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... to produce blocker-type, conventional, and close-tolerance forgings. Selection from the above closed-die types invariably depends on quantity and the cost of the finished part. Additional information on these types of products is available in the article “Closed-Die Forging in Hammers and Presses...