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hammer forging

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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 8 Specific energy vs. strain rate in the press and hammer forging of A-286 at three temperatures. Source: Ref 6 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract Hammers and high-energy-rate forging machines are classified as energy-restricted machines as they deform the workpiece by the kinetic energy of the hammer ram. This article provides information on gravity-drop hammers, power-drop hammers, die forger hammers, counterblow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... closed-die forging close-tolerance forgings conventional forgings friction hammers heating equipment lubrication presses shape complexity trimming CLOSED-DIE FORGING, or impression-die forging, is the shaping of hot metal completely within the walls or cavities of two dies that come...
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 31 Aluminum alloy adaptor hook forgings. (a) Hammer or press forging of original design. (b) Precision no-draft press forging of revised design, produced in a segmented die. See Example 9. Dimensions in figure given in inches Item Revised forging Material Aluminum alloy 7075 More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 37 Failure caused by a forging lap in a sledge-hammer head. (a) Cracks on the striking face soon after the hammer was first used. (b) A hot alkaline chromate etch revealed oxygen enrichment (white region) adjacent to the crack. 65× More
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 2 Four-hammer radial forging machine with mechanical drive. (a) Cross section through forging box. (b) Longitudinal section through forging box. 1, eccentric shaft; 2, sliding block; 3, connecting rod; 4, adjustment housing; 5, adjusting screw; 6, hydraulic overload protection; 7, hammer More
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 21 Main input gear transmission shaft, shown as (a) and (b) a conventional hammer forging, (c) a conventional upset forging, and (d) a press-contoured, low-draft forging. Machined contours of the shaft are shown in phantom on the sectional views. Dimensions given in inches More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Mises strain (ε vM ) ≈ 0.2 to 0.3, in a hammer forging, with a displacement rate 24–30 m/s and starting temperature of 1144 K. (c) Histograms showing the distribution of misorientation angles across the dislocation boundaries (GNBs) in the forging of (b) as measured in the TEM. More
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 14 Irregularly shaped hand-tool component that was upset and pierced from a hammer-forged blank in the tooling setup shown. Dimensions given in inches More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Forging machines use a wide variety of hammers, presses, and dies to produce products with the desired shape, size, and geometry. This article discusses the major types of hammers (gravity-drop, power-drop, high speed, and open-die forging), and presses (mechanical, hydraulic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... melted billets are usually brittle in tension; they are not normally forged before extruding, except at extremely high temperatures. A minimum extrusion ratio for adequate forgeability is 4 to 1. Molybdenum is frequently hammer forged if at all possible, because its high thermal conductivity and low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... variables such as workpiece and die temperature, strain rate, and deformation mode. The article describes the relative forgeability of the ten most widely used aluminum alloys, and reviews common forging equipment, including hammers, mechanical and screw presses, and hydraulic presses. It also discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract This article addresses dies and die materials used for hot forging in vertical presses, hammers, and horizontal forging machines (upsetters). It reviews the properties of die materials for hot forging, including good hardenability, resistance to wear, plastic deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
...Abstract Abstract Forgings are classified in various ways, beginning with the general classifications open die and closed die. They are also classified according to how they are made; such as hammer upset forgings, ring-rolled forgings, and multiple-ram press forgings; and in terms of the close...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003997
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... as that used for forging a similar shape from steel, that is, fullering, blocking, and finishing, as required (see the article “Closed-Die Forging in Hammers and Presses” in this Volume). Fig. 1 Examples of copper alloy closed-die forgings. Courtesy of Mueller Brass Company For simpler shapes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... to produce blocker-type, conventional, and close-tolerance forgings. Selection from the above closed-die types invariably depends on quantity and the cost of the finished part. Additional information on these types of products is available in the article “Closed-Die Forging in Hammers and Presses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the axis of a hammer or press stroke. The article illustrates the measurement of draft angle by describing the designs of forgings produced in equipment with vertical and horizontal rams. The use of excessive amounts of draft usually results in an increase in overall cost. The article describes various...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... sockets that require simultaneous upsetting and piercing. Forgings that require center upsets (not at bar end) or offset upsets can also be made. In many cases, hot upsetting is used as a means of preparing stock for subsequent forging on a hammer or in a press. Hot upsetting is also occasionally used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the significant factors in the selection of forging equipment for a particular process. It describes the characteristics of forging hydraulic presses, mechanical presses, screw presses, and hammers. The article discusses the significant characteristics...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... steel forgings. It provides an overview of the mechanical properties of wrought materials. The article also includes information on the fundamentals of hammer and press forgings and the design of hot upset forgings. closed-die steel forgings hot metal hot upset forgings material selection...