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half-cell reaction

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of simplicity, the concentration of metal ions is maintained at unit activity; that is, each solution contains approximately 1 mole of metal ion per liter. The reactions for copper and zinc electrodes in each half-cell are given in Eq 9 and 10 . However, at equilibrium, metal dissolution and deposition occur...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003799
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... on the definition that the half-cell reaction: 0.5 H 2 ( g , 1   atm ) = H + ( aq , α = 1 ) + e − where H 2 (g, 1 atm) is hydrogen gas at one atmosphere pressure, and H + (aq, α=1) is hydrogen ion in aqueous solution at unit activity, and the reaction has a zero electrode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... OH, CH 3 NH 2 , N 2 H 4 , OH − , Cl − , CN − , CH 3 COO − , or [Zn(H 2 O) 3 OH] + . Electrochemical Cell It is convenient to consider an electrochemical cell as consisting of two independent electrode or half-cell reactions. The anode supports an anodic reaction, and the cathode supports...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... as the standard half-cell potential for the oxidation reaction (− E 0 in Table 1 , where E 0 is defined as the standard reduction potential, per common convention) and assuming m is then equal to M , the atomic weight of the electrode material (the metal). (Note that this is the same as coupling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... can confidently be considered the electro-active component in the corrosion reaction. The reaction presented as Eq 2 can be separated into half-cell reactions as follows: (Eq 3) Al → Al 3 + + 3 e −  anodic reaction (Eq 4) 6 H + + 6 e − → 3 H 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of unit activity of protons saturated with hydrogen gas at a fugacity of one bar (14.5 psia). The half-cell reaction is H + (aq) + e − ↔ 1 2 H 2 (g). Any non-standard reversible hydrogen electrode with well-controlled H + activity and H 2 fugacity can also be used as a reference...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and acuminate powder are hot pressed to form a solid piece). The ionic current in the cell is carried by the carbonate ion (CO 2– 3 ); therefore, the half-cell reactions at the anode and cathode are different from their PAFC counterparts. In this case, the cathode reaction is the reduction of oxygen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... nitrate solution at unit activity of Ag + . The choice of these electrodes (or half-cells) avoids the complexity that arises with many electrodes of commercial interest where oxides or other stable corrosion products form on the surface. It also avoids the complexity that arises with reactions involving...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... other ( Ref 12 ) Examination of corroded materials ( Ref 13 ) Determination of uranium and plutonium assays in nuclear fuel ( Ref 14 , 15 ) Electrochemical Cells The basic process of an electrochemical reaction requires an electrochemical cell comprised of two half cells...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... be applied to oxidized forms of minerals with limited efficiency. The separation is based on whether or not mineral surfaces are wettable. The finely ground ore in an aqueous pulp is fed to a flotation machine with an impeller that provides vigorous agitation. Air is introduced into the cell either from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
..., magnetohydrodynamic forces, and cathode lining. It reviews the electrochemical reactions and thermodynamics for aluminum electrolysis standard Gibbs. The article also describes the cell operations and cell stability, as well as the key indicators of cell performance. It schematically illustrates the typical costs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... overall electrochemical reaction can be algebraically divided into half-cell oxidation and reduction reactions in which there can be no net electrical charge accumulation ( Ref 17 ). For open-circuit corrosion in the absence of an applied potential, the oxidation of the metal and the reduction of some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... is of this type, and its half-cell is: (Eq 12) Ag / AgCl ,  NaCl ( reference melt )   × LJ | ( melt under study ) The melt under study contains the same ions as the reference melt, but its concentration is variable. If the concentrations of the two melts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... reduction: (Eq 4) 2 H + + 2 e − → H 2 The sum of two electrochemical half-reactions, one anodic (such as Eq 1 ) and one cathodic (such as Eq 2 ), is the overall corrosion reaction: (Eq 5) M + Ox → M n + + Red An example is the dissolution of iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... and C in Eq 32 Mechanisms of Cathodic Processes Cathodic processes are half-cell reactions necessary to allow corrosion reactions to take place. Indeed, the metal-dissolving anodic reaction is forcibly coupled to a cathodic counterpart that consumes the electrons produced by the anodic...
Book Chapter

By D.R. Crow
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001741
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... in voltammetry, and provides an outline of additional data, such as values of the formation, or stability, and constants of complexes formed by shifting the half-wave potential, which can be obtained by voltammetry. Additionally, the article provides a brief account of the applications of voltammetry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
...). After particles are “eaten” by macrophages and other phagocytic-capable cells around implants, proinflammatory reactions occur, such as the possible activation of metal-reactive T-cells ( Ref 45 ), release of proinflammatory mediators ( Ref 36 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 ), cytotoxicity ( Ref 46 ), DNA...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.9781627081825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... Theoretical Considerations Electrochemical reactions are almost always the cause of corrosion of metals in contact with water. Metals in their elemental state are unstable in the presence of water and dissolved oxygen. For corrosion to occur, all the components of an electrochemical cell are needed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
....” When computing the metal/solution potential associated with the various half-cell reactions (e.g., Eq 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5(a) , 5(b) , 6 , 7 ), it is conventional to formulate the reactions as reduction processes, for example: (Eq 12) Ni 2 + + 2 e − → Ni The “reduction...