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hafnium

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the processes involved in the production of hafnium and its alloys. It discusses the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of hafnium. The aqueous corrosion testing of hafnium and its alloys is detailed. The article reviews the corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
...Abstract Abstract This article is a compilation of binary alloy phase diagrams for which hafnium (Hf) is the first named element in the binary pair. The diagrams are presented with element compositions in weight percent. The atomic percent compositions are given in a secondary scale. For each...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract Zirconium, hafnium, and their alloys are reactive metals used in a variety of nuclear and chemical processing applications. This article describes various specimen preparation procedures for these materials, including sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the general characteristics, primary and secondary fabrication methods, product forms, and corrosion resistance of zirconium and hafnium. It describes the physical metallurgy of zirconium and its alloys, providing details on allotropic transformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract Zirconium and hafnium surfaces require cleaning and finishing for reasons such as preparation for joining, heat treatment, plating, forming, and producing final surface finishes. This article provides information on various surface treatment processes, surface soil removal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
...Abstract Abstract Zirconium, hafnium, and titanium are produced from ore that generally is found in a heavy beach sand containing zircon, rutile, and ilmenite. This article discusses the processing methods of these metals, namely, liquid-liquid separation process, distillation separation...
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 9 Superlattice layer formed on the sulfidized Fe 3 Al+yttrium-hafnium alloy in a H 2 /H 2 S/H 2 O environment at 900 °C (1650 °F) for 240 h. (a) Dark-field image. (b) Electron diffraction pattern. Source: Ref 61 More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 6 Microstructure of wrought pure hafnium, with an as-polished specimen viewed in polarized light plus sensitive tint, revealing an equiaxed alpha hexagonal close-packed grain structure. A few mechanical twins can be seen at the surface (arrows). The magnification bar is 100 μm long. More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 23 Mechanically twinned hafnium weld. Specimen was attack polished and heat tinted (∼400 °C, or 750 °F). Polarized light illumination. 60×. (P.E. Danielson) More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 46 Hafnium crystal bar showing twins caused by cold working. Attack polished, heat tinted at 480 °C (900 °F), and viewed under differential interference contrast illumination. 65×. (P.E. Danielson) More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 40 Hafnium sheet, transverse, attack polished, etchant procedure No. 2 ( Table 2 ), anodized at 15 V, polarized light. This micrograph shows the appearance of a hafnium weld structure. Original magnification: 15× More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 41 Hafnium plate, wrought, longitudinal. (a) Plate surface viewed with polarized light illumination. (b) Contaminated area. Attack polished, etchant procedure No. 2, anodized at 118 V, and viewed with bright-field illumination. These micrographs show the hardness differences between More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 42 Hafnium plate, longitudinal, attack polished, etchant procedure No. 2 ( Table 2 ), polarized light. This microphotograph shows how anodization assists in delineation of the grain structure. Original magnification: 100× More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 43 Hafnium rod, powder metallurgy, transverse. Attack polished, etchant procedure No. 2, anodized at 118 V, and viewed with bright-field illumination. Transverse view of a hafnium grain structure with second phase (iron enriched) in the grain boundaries. Original magnification: 1000×. More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 44 Hafnium sheet, attack polished, etchant procedure No. 2 ( Table 2 ), anodized at 115 V, polarized light. Softer materials may be more susceptible to artifacts caused during preparation. (a) Improper polishing caused what appear to be defects in the grains. (b) Properly prepared sample More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 45 Hafnium rod, 19 mm ( 3 4 in.) in diameter, transverse. Attack polished, etchant procedure No. 2, anodized at 115 V, and viewed with polarized light illumination. This micrograph shows texture “lobes” caused by localized deformation. Original magnification: 15×. More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 46 Hafnium sheet, wrought, longitudinal, attack polished, etchant procedure No. 2 ( Table 2 ), anodized at 15 V, polarized light. This micrograph shows the effect of cold work in a structure. Original magnification: 150× More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 47 Hafnium crystal bar, longitudinal, attack polished, etchant procedure No. 2 ( Table 2 ), anodized at 15 V, polarized light. This hafnium grain structure exhibits very large grains due to high purity and shows twinning in the grains. Original magnification: 15× More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 48 Hafnium crystal bar, longitudinal. Attack polished, heat tinted, and viewed with polarized light illumination. This micrograph shows the twinning in hafnium grains. Original magnification: 50×. More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 50 Zircaloy 4/hafnium bimetallic tube. Attack polished, etchant procedure No. 2, anodized at 108 V, and viewed with bright-field illumination. This micrograph shows the difference in anodization color of zirconium as compared to hafnium. Original magnification: 100× More