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guided wave testing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...Abstract Abstract Guided wave testing (GWT) is a method of nondestructive evaluation for the inspection of pipelines. This article focuses mainly on explaining GWT as it is applied in routine established use, covered by standards, in the oil and gas industry and also introduces some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... (ultrasound) is introduced into a test piece through a couplant and travels by wave motion through the test piece at the velocity of (ultra)sound, which depends on the material. When the pulse of ultrasound encounters a reflecting surface that is perpendicular to the direction of travel, ultrasonic energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... for either ultrasonic nondestructive testing or ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation, and NDE is used interchangeably for either nondestructive evaluation or nondestructive testing). Here, EMATs are defined as that class of transducers capable of generating and/or receiving a variety of elastic-wave modes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... generation and detection are discussed in the article “Guided Wave Testing” in this Volume. Fig. 8 Example of dispersion curves, calculated for aluminum 1.0 mm thick, with symmetric and antisymmetric modes, shown in normalized units (MHz-mm). A 0 and S 0 are fundamental modes; index indicates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract Microwave and guided wave (GW) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are capable of detecting corrosion damage, cracks, and other defect types in inaccessible areas. This article describes the operation principles of the techniques and provides information on hidden...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... blocks are more widely accepted as standards than are test blocks that contain natural flaws, because it is easier to make a number of them more consistently. Test blocks containing drilled holes are widely used for longitudinal-wave, straight-beam inspection, and with angled beams using shear waves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... with horns for high power and for a range of specialized nondestructive testing (NDT) applications. Magnetostriction is used for lower frequencies; a common application now is guided wave generation ( Ref 6 ). In looking more widely at options for ultrasound generation that generally are considered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... transducers, water or air immersion transducers, or laser velocimetry sensors. Guided wave ultrasound using piezoelectric, EMAT, or magnetostrictive sensors. This is a growing inspection approach because of advancement of techniques for focusing, steering, temperature, and dispersion curve compensation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... used method because of the complex nature of the waves and noise signals generated during its application. The new developments in signal processing and the hardware and software designs of ultrasonic guided wave methods have made it possible to sense defects in inaccessible areas under coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... frequencies ( Ref 5 ). Rayleigh waves are strictly defined on a flat half-space, but a SAW propagating on a sample with a finite thickness that is greater than several wavelengths can be approximated as a Rayleigh wave ( Ref 1 , 2 ). In addition, guided surface waves on thick but slightly curved surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...., magnetic flux-leakage, Hall-effect sensors, and magnetic-particle techniques), ultrasonic, acoustic emission, guided wave, laser testing, microwave, radiographic, thermal and infrared testing, x-ray diffraction, and visual inspection. Selection of the NDT method depends on product manufacturing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... diffraction ultrasonic technique cracks TIME-OF-FLIGHT DIFFRACTION (TOFD) is an ultrasonic technique used to detect diffracted waves from crack tips and to size the cracks from the arrival times of those waves. Its primary use is rapid weld testing of circumferential and axial weld seams. Time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... materials for split-Hopkinson pressure bar testing Bar material Elastic modulus ( E ) Wave impedance (ρ/ C 0 ), km · g/s · cm 3 Impedance relative to steel, (ρ/ C 0 ) x /(ρ/ C 0 ) steel , % GPa 10 6 ksi Steel 212 31 40.8 100 Ti-6Al-4V 115 17 22.8 56 Aluminum 90 13 13.5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003435
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... on guided-wave ultrasonics that were developed almost 60 years ago, when ultrasonic waves were used to propagate along transmission lines ( Ref 15 ). When a high-frequency ultrasonic pulse (typically 0.5 MHz to 10 MHz) impinges on a rod, the ultrasound travels along the rod as a guided wave at specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... Wave display nomenclature: T, transmit pulse; S, surface reflection echo; F 1 , flaw echo; B 1 , back wall echo. Source: Ref 1 A testing method for detecting smaller flaws immediately under the surface of cold-drawn bars is the angle-beam method ( Fig. 4b ), which conveys ultrasonic waves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... wave similar to those used in linear ultrasonic NDE, but the modulating deformation is sufficiently strong to produce a nonlinear response from the material being tested. The three most popular modulation techniques used in ultrasonic NDE are quasi-static modulation, low-frequency modulation, and high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.9781627081900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...Abstract Abstract This article introduces the principal methodologies and some technologies that are being applied for nondestructive evaluation of composite materials. These include ultrasonic testing (UT), air-coupled UT, laser UT, ultrasonic spectroscopy, leaky lamb wave method, acousto...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... or with the transducers mounted on robotic scanners. Fig. 9 Configurations for air-coupled ultrasonic testing. (a) Through-transmission. (b) Angled beam. (c) Pitch-catch. (d) Guided wave Fig. 10 Example scans of a graphite/epoxy paste-bonded laminate panel (approximately 200 × 175 mm, or 8 × 7...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... levels and has been successfully used in tests for bother screening and instrument and organ visualization when guiding needles were used for performing biopsies. One application receiving attention is through-transmission ultrasound applied to breast imaging. A schematic for a holographic imaging...