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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... aerospace industry, primarily to remove forming lubricants from detail parts prior to heat treatment, inspection, or finishing operations. Dip tank cleaning systems are effective for many applications. Part configuration is a factor: the shape of the part must allow excess cleaning...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... possible to their final shape. The article also provides useful information on drying methods, shrinkage, and defects as well as the removal of organic processing aids such as dispersants, binders, plasticizers, and lubricants. ceramic forming process drying green machining organics removal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and sintered PM parts: density variations, compaction and ejection cracks, microlaminations, poor degree of sintering, and voids from prior lubricant agglomerates. It describes the various methods applicable to green compacts: direct-current resistivity testing, radiographic techniques, computed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... important properties to characterize powders, namely the particle size, surface area, density, porosity, particle hardness, compressibility, green strength, and flowability. For characterization of powders, both individual particles and bulk powders are used to evaluate their physical and chemical...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... The article discusses the flux process and fluxless process for the melting and pouring of magnesium alloys. It describes the advantages and disadvantages of green sand molding and tabulates typical compositions and properties of magnesium molding sands. The article provides information on the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... shell molding and green sand molding. casting dimensional accuracy green sand molding shell molding tensile strength mold cracking soft molds peelback mold shift shell coremaking sand reclamation resin-sand properties mold defects mold patterns THE SHELL PROCESS was first...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Western bentonite imparts high green and dry strengths to molding sand, and it has advantages for use with ferrous alloys, as follows. First, Western bentonite develops a high degree of plasticity, toughness, and deformation, along with providing good lubricity when mulled thoroughly with water. Molding...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Aluminum casting alloys are the most versatile of all common foundry alloys and generally have the highest castability ratings. Aluminum alloy castings are routinely produced by pressure-die, permanent-mold, green and dry-sand, investment, and plaster casting. This article describes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses classification of foundry processes based on the molding medium, such as sand molds, ceramic molds, and metallic molds. Sand molds can be briefly classified into two types: bonded sand molds, and unbonded sand molds. Bonded sand molds include green sand molds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... surface. In daylight or conditions of sun, a black sheet or drape may be required to shield the area from atmospheric light. Note that bits of lint on the cloth or small cloth fibers on the steel surfaces may fluoresce but are not indications of oil contamination. A bright yellow/green fluorescence of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... affecting forgeability. It describes the forging techniques, equipment, and common processing elements associated with titanium alloy forging. The processing elements include the preparation of forging stock, preheating of the stock, die heating, lubrication, forging process, trimming and repair, cleaning...
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... evolve. This is directly related to the wide range of densities used in P/M products: from very low-density metallic forms to low- and medium-density filters and self-lubricating bearings, and high- and full-density structural parts. In the most widely employed technique, powders are compacted into green...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... reduction process Copper Chemical properties, % Physical properties Compacted properties Tin Graphite Lubricant Hydrogen loss Acid insolubles Apparent density, g/cm 3 Hall flow rate, s/50 g Tyler sieve analysis, % Green density, g/cm 3 Green strength, MPa (psi), at: +100 +150...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... furniture, and bearing industries, products are used not only as rust preventives, but as lubricants. In the steel industry, a rust-preventive compound is put on the surface of steel that has been pickled after hot rolling. This compound, which is usually compatible with the cold-rolling oil, sometimes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... martensitic grades. Compaction pressures ranging from 550 to 830 MPa (40 to 60 tsi) are common in commercial practice. Fig. 1 Typical compaction behavior of stainless steel powders. Lubrication 1% lithium stearate The green strength of stainless steel compacts, which is about half that of P/M...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... process is terminated. The coating formed is matte green. This coating has very unusual corrosion- and abrasion-resisting properties and can be readily painted. Following the application of a conversion coating, most commonly zinc phosphate, the treated parts can be coated with most of the organic and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... highly complex shapes. Compacting consolidates and densifies the loose powder into a shape called a “green compact.” With conventional pressing techniques, the compact has the size and shape of the finished product when ejected from the die. It has sufficient strength (termed green strength) for in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... fast and accurate die filling. The chemistry affects the final alloy produced, as well as the compressibility. Green strength and compressibility are more critical in conventionally processed P/M parts than they are in powder forging applications. Although there is a need to maintain edge integrity...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., auxiliary gates, chills, or blind heads can be used. However, a casting of nonuniform section thickness may require such elaborate mold methods that molding and cleaning costs become too high. When sand molds are used, particularly green sand, it is usually necessary to begin pouring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... with different thicknesses and colors can be produced. Voltage governs the thickness of the oxide layer, which determines the color (first gold, then red, green, blue, and black with increasing thickness). This technique can be employed to decoratively color zirconium and hafnium alloys and to enhance...